A. P. Sinnet

Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840, in London – 1921) was an English author and theosophist. Sinnett's father died while he was young, as in 1851 Sinnett was listed as a "Scholar – London University", living with his mother Jane, who is listed as a widow and whose occupation is listed as "Periodical Literature"; his older sister Sophia, age 22, was a teacher. Jane's sister Sarah, age 48, was also a teacher. In 1870 Sinnett married his wife Patience, probably in the London area. He is listed in the 1871 England Census at age 31, as a Journalist, born in Middlesex. His wife Patience is 27, and her mother Clarissa Edenson a "Landowner", is living with them. By 1879, Sinnett had moved to India where he was "... the Editor of The Pioneer, the leading English Daily of India..." He relates in his book, The Occult World that: "...on the first occasion of my making Madame Blavatsky's acquaintance she became a guest at my home at Allahabad and remained there for six weeks..." In 1880 Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott visited the Sinnetts at their summer home in Simla. The Mahatma Letters, which generated the controversy that later helped lead to the split of the Theosophical Society were mostly written to Sinnett or his wife Patience. The letters started at this time when Sinnett asked Blavatsky whether if he wrote a letter to her Mahatmas, she could arrange to have it delivered. By 1884 Sinnett was back in England, where that year Constance Wachtmeister states that she met Blavatsky at the home of the Sinnetts in London. Sinnett asked Charles Webster Leadbeater to come back to England to tutor his son Percy and George Arundale. Leadbeater agreed and brought with him one of his pupil Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa. Using "astral clairvoyance" Leadbeater assisted William Scott-Elliot to write his book The Story of Atlantis, for which Sinnett wrote the preface. Sinnett was later president of the London Lodge of the Society. By 1901 Sinnett is listed as an author. His son Percy is also listed as an author and born in India.[5]

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He was effectively dictator of Nazi Germany, and was at the centre of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust. Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers' Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he dictated his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communismwith charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy. Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the denunciation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans—actions which gave him significant popular support. EARLY YEARY: Hitler's father Alois Hitler, Sr. (1837 – 1903) was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, and Alois initially bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. She died in 1847 and Johann Hiedler died in 1856. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedler's brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler..


Aesop (/ˈiːsɒp/ EE-sop; Ancient Greek: Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos, c. 620–564 BCE) was an Ancient Greek fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables. Although his existence remains uncertain and (if they ever existed) no writings by him survive, numerous tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. Many of the tales are characterized by animals and inanimate objects that speak, solve problems, and generally have human characteristics. Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources, including Aristotle, Herodotus, and Plutarch. An ancient literary work called The Aesop Romance tells an episodic, probably highly fictional version of his life, including the traditional description of him as a strikingly ugly slave (δοῦλος) who by his cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and city-states. Older spellings of his name have included Esop(e) and Isope. A later tradition (dating from the Middle Ages) depicts Aesop as a black Ethiopian. Depictions of Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years have included several works of art and his appearance as a character in numerous books, films, plays, and television programs.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein [Germany] (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory.

Alexander Van Millingen

Alexander Van Millingen 1840-1915 He was born in 1840 in Constantinople. He was Scotch of Dutch extraction and he was the son of a doctor, who must have come out to Turkey in the early days of the 19. Century. He was physician at the Imperial Palace. The son A.v.M. was a scholar of the first order and he taught at Robert College for a great many years. He was formidable in his lectures but every one respected him for his erudition and his passion for accuracy in research. He was tall and spare and wore a rather scraggy moustache and his near-sighted eyes were almost hidden behind his thick pince-nez. His speech was always deliberate and sounded as though it flowed from the purest of classical fountaine.He was exceedingly broad-minded and possessed the ability of seeing the inner nature and the causes of things rather than judging them superficially. He was always energetic, active, strong and young-looking. He married Miss Cora Welch, daughter of a rich New Haven banker. He wanted a home for himself. He made an arrangement with the College to share in its construction. His 2 sons were the first students of Robert College. Although Van Millingen excelled as a teacher and theologien archeology was the most important field of his activity. With the help of the many languages which he had mastered, including Latin, and ancient Greek he had access to all the important works concerning his own field of study Byzantine Constantinople. He was never satisfied with the works of others. He collected scientific data on the field by reading inscriptions on the walls and in the churches and making accurate measurements and designs.He published his 2 masterpieces after painstaiking and conscientious work. These are: The books on the walls and churches of Byzantine Constantinople. Millingen's books many years after are still considered standard works on the subject. He wrote several scholarly books on the history and monuments of Istanbul. for his speciality was Byzantine times. When he died on 15 september 1915, he left a good many of his books to the institution he had served so long and it has formed the nucleus of the Library.

Alexandre Dumas

A. Dumas in 1855. Alexandre Dumas (24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père, was a French writer, best known for his historical novels of high adventure. Translated into nearly 100 languages, these have made him one of the most widely read French authors in history. Many of his novels, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later were originally published as serials. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by a scholar and published in 2005, becoming a bestseller. It was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier. Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. He also wrote numerous magazine articles and travel books; his published works totaled 100,000 pages. In the 1840s, Dumas founded the Théâtre Historique in Paris.

Alexis De Tocqueville

Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (French: [alɛksi ʃaʁl ɑ̃ʁi kleʁɛl də tɔkvil]; 29 July 1805 – 16 April 1859) was a French political thinker and historian best known for his works Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). In both of these, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals, as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States, and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and then during the Second Republic (1849–1851) which succeeded the February 1848 Revolution. He retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's 2 December 1851 coup, and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution.[1]

Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead, (1861 – 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher. He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process philosophy, which today has found application to a wide variety of disciplines, including ecology, theology, education, physics, biology, economics, and psychology, among other areas. In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics. His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–13), which he co-wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library. Beginning in the late 1910s and early 1920s, Whitehead gradually turned his attention from mathematics to philosophy of science, and finally to metaphysics. He developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy. Whitehead argued that reality consists of events rather than matter, and that these events cannot be defined apart from their relations to other events, thus rejecting the theory that reality is fundamentally constructed by bits of matter that exist independently of one another. Today Whitehead's philosophical works – particularly Process and Reality – are regarded as the foundational texts of process philosophy. Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us." For this reason, one of the most promising applications of Whitehead's thought in recent years has been in the area of ecological civilization and environmental ethics pioneered by John B. Cobb, Jr. A Treatise on Universal Algebra: In A Treatise on Universal Algebra (1898) the term "universal algebra" had essentially the same meaning that it has today: the study of algebraic structures themselves, rather than examples ("models") of algebraic structures. Whitehead credits William Rowan Hamilton and Augustus De Morgan as originators of the subject matter, and James Joseph Sylvester with coining the term itself.

Alonzo Rothschild

Alonzo Rothschild (1862-1915), born in New York City to German-Jewish parents, developed early in life an interest in books and reading. As a young man, Rothschild tried his hand at journalism, spending several months working as a reporter for the New York Commercial Advertiser. Employment with a wholesale jewelry company interrupted for several years his plans for a journalistic career. However, it was through the jewelry business that Rothschild returned to journalism, when in 1885 he founded The Jeweler’s Weekly, a publication devoted to covering news of the trade with minimal advertising. The publication was immensely successful and, as a result, Rothschild was able to retire at the young age of twenty-eight. Rothschild devoted the remainder of his life to self-education and to writing. He moved from New York City to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and attended courses at Harvard as a special student. It was during his residency in Cambridge that Rothschild developed an interest in studying the life of Abraham Lincoln. Rothschild planned to write a book or two on Lincoln and his cabinet. As his research progressed, however, Rothschild decided to concentrate solely on Lincoln, producing Lincoln, Master of Men: A Study in Character, published by Houghton Mifflin’s Riverside Press in 1906. Rothschild was writing a second book on Lincoln when his life was tragically cut short by a swimming accident in 1915. Two years later “Honest Abe”: A Study in Integrity was published through the efforts of his son John.

Annie Besant

Annie Besant (1847 – 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule. In 1867, Annie at age 20, married Frank Besant, a clergyman, and they had two children, but Annie's increasingly anti-religious views led to a legal separation in 1873. She then became a prominent speaker for the National Secular Society (NSS) and writer and a close friend of Charles Bradlaugh. In 1877 they were prosecuted for publishing a book by birth control campaigner Charles Knowlton. The scandal made them famous, and Bradlaugh was elected M.P. for Northampton in 1880. She became involved with union actions including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888. She was a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the Marxist Social Democratic Federation (SDF). She was elected to the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, topping the poll even though few women were qualified to vote at that time. In 1890 Besant met Helena Blavatsky and over the next few years her interest in theosophy grew while her interest in secular matters waned. She became a member of the Theosophical Society and a prominent lecturer on the subject. As part of her theosophy-related work, she travelled to India. In 1898 she helped establish the Central Hindu College and in 1922 she helped establish the Hyderabad (Sind) National Collegiate Board in Mumbai, India. In 1902, she established the first overseas Lodge of the International Order of Co-Freemasonry, Le Droit Humain. Over the next few years she established lodges in many parts of the British Empire. In 1907 she became president of the Theosophical Society, whose international headquarters were in Adyar, Madras, (Chennai). She also became involved in politics in India, joining the Indian National Congress. When World War I broke out in 1914, she helped launch the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India and dominion status within the Empire. This led to her election as president of the India National Congress in late 1917. In the late 1920s, Besant travelled to the United States with her protégé and adopted son Jiddu Krishnamurti, who she claimed was the new Messiah and incarnation of Buddha. Krishnamurti rejected these claims in 1929. After the war, she continued to campaign for Indian independence and for the causes of theosophy, until her death in 1933.

Anthony Hope

Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins, better known as Anthony Hope (1863 –1933), was an English novelist and playwright. He was a prolific writer, especially of adventure novels but he is remembered best for only two books: The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) and its sequel Rupert of Hentzau (1898). These works, "minor classics" of English literature, are set in the contemporaneous fictional country of Ruritania and spawned the genre known as Ruritanian romance. Zenda has inspired many adaptations, most notably the 1937 Hollywood movie of the same name. Hope trained as a lawyer and barrister, being called to the Bar by the Middle Temple in 1887. He had time to write, as his working day was not overly full during these early years and he lived with his widowed father, then vicar of St Bride's Church, Fleet Street. Hope's short pieces appeared in periodicals but for his first book he was forced to resort to a self-publishing press. A Man of Mark (1890) is notable primarily for its similarities to Zenda: it is set in an imaginary country, Aureataland and features political upheaval and humour. More novels and short stories followed, including Father Stafford in 1891 and the mildly successful Mr Witt's Widowin 1892. He stood as the Liberal candidate for Wycombe in the election of 1892 but was not elected. In 1893 he wrote three novels (Sport Royal, A Change of Air and Half-a-Hero) and a series of sketches that first appeared in the Westminster Gazette and were collected in 1894 as The Dolly Dialogues, illustrated by Arthur Rackham. Dolly was his first major literary success. A.E.W. Mason deemed these conversations "so truly set in the London of their day that the social historian would be unwise to neglect them," and said that they were written with "delicate wit [and] a shade of sadness." The idea for Hope's tale of political intrigue, The Prisoner of Zenda, being the history of three months in the life of an English gentleman, came to him at the close of 1893 as he was walking in London. Hope finished the first draft in a month and the book was in print by April. The story is set in the fictional European kingdom of 'Ruritania', a term which has come to mean 'the novelist's and dramatist's locale for court romances in a modern setting.' Zenda achieved instant success and its witty protagonist, the debonair Rudolf Rassendyll, became a well-known literary creation. The novel was praised by Mason, literary critic Andrew Lang, and Robert Louis Stevenson.

Antoine Saint-Exupery

ABOUT AUTHOR: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, officially Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of France's highest literary awards and also won the U.S. National Book Award. He is best remembered for his novella The Little Prince (Le Petit Prince) and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind, Sand and Stars and Night Flight. Saint-Exupéry was a successful commercial pilot before World War II, working airmail routes in Europe, Africa and South America. At the outbreak of war, he joined the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air), flying reconnaissance missions until France's armistice with Germany in 1940. After being demobilised from the French Air Force, he travelled to the United States to persuade its government to enter the war against Nazi Germany. Following a 27-month hiatus in North America, during which he wrote three of his most important works, he joined the Free French Air Force in North Africa, although he was far past the maximum age for such pilots and in declining health. He disappeared over the Mediterranean on his last assigned reconnaissance mission in July 1944, and is believed to have died at that time.

Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish physician and writer who is most noted for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. He is also known for writing the fictional adventures of a second character he invented, Professor Challenger. He was a prolific writer whose other works include fantasy and science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction, and historical novels.

August Mau

August Mau (1840 – 1909) was a prominent German art historian and archaeologist who worked with the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut while studying and classifying the Roman paintings at Pompeii, which was destroyed with the town of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD. The paintings were in remarkably good condition due to the preservation by the volcanic ash that covered the city. Mau first divided these paintings into the four Pompeian Styles still used as a classification. Mau was born in Kiel, where he read Classical Philology at the University of Kiel, and then at the University of Bonn. He moved to Rome, for reasons of ill-health, in 1872, where he became Secretary to the German Archaeological Institute and catalogued the holdings of its extensive library. His interests lay above all in Pompeii, with inscriptions and Roman wall paintings, where he built upon the earlier work published by Wolfgang Helbig and Giuseppe Fiorelli. Mau died in Rome in 1909.

Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857), better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories could have culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which might have influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte might possibly have coined the word altruisme (altruism).

Beatrix Potter

Beatrix Potter (born Helen Beatrix Potter; 28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author, illustrator, natural scientist and conservationist best known for her imaginative children's books, featuring animals such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit, which celebrated the British landscape and country life.

Benjamin Paul Blood

Benjamin Paul Blood (1832 – 1919) was an American philosopher and poet. He was born in Amsterdam, New York. His father, John Blood, was a prosperous landowner. Blood was known as an intelligent man but an unfocused one. He described himself: I was born here in Amsterdam. My father was a land holder of 700 acres [2.8 km²] here, adjoining the city on both sides of the river, and lived, as I now live, in a large brick house on the south bank of the Mohawk visible as you enter Amsterdam from the east. I was his only child, and went a good deal my own way. I ran to machinery, by fancy; patented among other devices a swathing reaper which is very successful. I was of loose and wandering ways. And was a successful gambler through the Tweed regime -- made 'bar'ls' of money, and threw it away. I was a fancy gymnast also, and have had some heavy fights, notable one of forty minutes with Ed. Mullett, whom I left senseless. This was mere fancy. I never lifted an angry hand against man, woman or child -- all fun -- for me. ....I do farming in a way, but am much idle. I have been a sort of pet of the city, and think I should be missed. In a large vote taken by one of the daily papers here a month or so ago as to who were the 12 leading citizens, I was 6th in the 12, and sole in my class. So you see, if Sparta has many a worthier son, I am still boss in the department I prefer. Blood did indeed patent a swathing reaper, along with other patents, and wrote prolifically, but the larger portion of his writing consisted of letters, either to local newspapers or to friends such as James Hutchison Stirling, Alfred Tennyson and William James (the above quote was from a letter to James). H. M. Kallen wrote of Blood: He was born in 1832 and lived for eighty-six years. During that time he wrote much, but unsystematically. His favorite form of publication was letters to newspapers, mainly local newspapers with a small circulation. These letters dealt with an astonishing diversity of subjects, from local petty politics or the tricks of spiritualist mediums to principles of industry and finance and profundities of metaphysics. Early books included The Philosophy of Justice Between God and Man (1851) and Optimism: The Lesson of Ages (1860), a Christian mystical vision of the pursuit of happiness from Blood's distinctly American perspective. During his lifetime he was best known for his poetry, which included The Bride of the Iconoclast, Justice,and The Colonnades.

Bernard Granville Baker

Bernard Granville Baker (1870 – 1957) (known as B. Granville Baker) was a British soldier and painter specialising in military subjects. He wrote and illustrated a number of books. Baker was born in Pune in India. He was the son of Montagu Bernard Baker, who worked for the British East India Company, and his wife Harriet Fanny Bangh. He was educated at Winchester College and the Military Academy at Dresden. He served in the 21st Hussar regiment in India and Burma. He then joined the 9th Royal Prussian Hussar regiment to fight in the Boer Wars in South Africa in 1900. In the First World War, he became a Lieutenant-Colonel and commanded a battalion of the Yorkshire Regiment. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order medal in 1918. Baker is known for his illustrations and watercolour paintings of military subjects, such as "Sir John Moore at Corunna, January 16th 1809" in the 1920s. He exhibited his paintings at the Liverpool Walker Art Gallery and London Salon between 1914 and 1930, as well as in his home town of Beccles. He wrote and illustrated a number of books. From a Terrace in Prague has the dedication "This book is dedicated to a wise and gentle lady who looks out upon life from a terrace", while A Winter Holiday in Portugal has "This book is dedicated to a lady, fair and gracious who lives in Lisbon". He was a Justice of the Peace for Suffolk. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and of the Royal Historical Society.

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, (1872 – 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic and political activist. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these in any profound sense. He was born in Monmouthshire, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism". He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore, and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy". His work has had a considerable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system), and philosophy, especially philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed anti-imperialism and went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. In 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought".


Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Italian: [ˈsandro bottiˈtʃɛlli]; c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine school under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later as a "golden age", a thought, suitably enough, he expressed at the head of his Vita of Botticelli. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Among his best known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.

Bram Stoker

Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish novelist and short story writer, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula. During his lifetime, he was better known as personal assistant of actor Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned. Early life: Stoker was born on 8 November 1847 at 15 Marino Crescent, Clontarf, on the northside of Dublin, Ireland. His parents were Abraham Stoker (1799–1876), from Dublin, and Charlotte Mathilda Blake Thornley (1818–1901), who was raised in County Sligo. Stoker was the third of seven children, the eldest of whom was Sir Thornley Stoker, Abraham and Charlotte were members of the Church of Ireland Parish of Clontarf and attended the parish church with their children, who were baptised there.

Caner Özoğul

He was born in 1986 in the Golbasi district of Adiyaman province. He completed his primary, secondary and high school education in the same place. After completing the pre-bachelor's degree in Computer Programming in Istanbul, he completed his undergraduate studies in Business Administration department. He is currently studying Master's degree in Management Information Systems. Author who started to deal with Alternative Medicine in 2010. In the Ibn Sina's “The Canon of Medicine”, he has begun to be reviewed on the subject of medicine and it is aimed not to progress to this area through the translation and other sources of Alternative Medicine. Pharmacology specialists have received training in phytotherapy, adding cup therapy, hematology and leech therapy and manual therapy training.

Carlo Collodi

Carlo Lorenzini, better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi (1826 –1890), was an Italian children's writer known for the world-renowned fairy tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio. Life: Collodi was born in Florence, on November 22, 1826. Although he was born in Florence, he spent most of his childhood in a town called Collodi where his mother was born. His mother was a farmer's daughter and his father was a cook. He had 10 other siblings but 7 died at a young age. During the Italian wars of Independence in 1848 and 1860 Collodi served as a volunteer with the Tuscan army. His active interest in political matters may be seen in his earliest literary works as well as in the founding of the satirical newspaper Il Lampione. This newspaper was censored by order of the Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1849 but re-emerged in May 1860. Lorenzini had won fame as early as 1856 with his novel In vapore and had also begun intense activity on other political newspapers such as Il Fanfulla; at the same time he was employed by the Censorship Commission for the Theatre. During this period he composed various satirical sketches and stories (sometimes simply by collating earlier articles), including Macchiette (1880), Occhi e nasi (1881), Storie allegre (1887). In 1875, he entered the domain of children's literature with Racconti delle fate, a translation of French fairy tales by Perrault. In 1876 Lorenzini wrote Giannettino (inspired by Alessandro Luigi Parravicini's Giannetto), the Minuzzolo, and Il viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino, a series which explored the re-unification of Italy through the ironic thoughts and actions of the character Giannettino. Lorenzini became fascinated by the idea of using an amiable, rascally character as a means of expressing his own convictions through allegory. In 1880 he began writing Storia di un burattino ("The story of a marionette"), also called Le avventure di Pinocchio, which was published weekly in Il Giornale per i Bambini (the first Italian newspaper for children).

Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin became internationally famous, and his pre-eminence as a scientist was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.

Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. During his life, his works enjoyed unprecedented fame, and by the twentieth century his literary genius was broadly acknowledged by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to be widely popular.

Charles Perrault

harles Perrault (1628 – 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood), Cendrillon (Cinderella), Le Chat Botté (Puss in Boots), La Belle au bois dormant (The Sleeping Beauty) and La Barbe bleue (Bluebeard). Some of Perrault's versions of old stories may have influenced the German versions published by the Brothers Grimm 200 years later. The stories continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet (such as Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty), theatre, and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, and was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns.

Daniel A. Murray

Daniel Alexander Murray (1862–1934) was a Canadian mathematician. Murray was born in Colchester County, Nova Scotia, and was educated at Dalhousie and Johns Hopkins universities and in Berlin and Paris. He was successively associate professor of mathematics at New York University, instructor at Cornell, professor at Dalhousie University, and, after 1907, professor of applied mathematics at McGill.

Daniel Defoe

Daniel Defoe (1660 – 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, now most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain, and, along with others such as Samuel Richardson, is among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets and journals on various topics (including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology and the supernatural). He was also a pioneer of economic journalism.

Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, simply referred to as Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy, originally called La Comedia and later called Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. In Italy he is known as il Sommo Poeta ("the Supreme Poet") or just il Poeta. He, Petrarch and Boccaccio are also known as "the three fountains" or "the three crowns". Dante is also called the "Father of the Italian language". Life Dante was born in Florence, Italy. The exact date of birth is unknown, although it is generally believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in La Divina Commedia. Its first section, the Inferno, begins "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita" ("Halfway through the journey of our life"), implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalms 89:10, Vulgate) is 70 years; and since his imaginary travel to the nether world took place in 1300, he must have been born around 1265. Some verses of the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy also provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini: "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious" (XXII 151–154). In 1265, the sun was in Gemini between approximately May 11 and June 11.

David Eugene Smith

David Eugene Smith (1860 – 1944) was an American mathematician, educator, and editor. David Eugene Smith is considered one of the founders of the field of mathematics education. Smith was born in Cortland, New York, to Abram P. Smith, attorney and surrogate judge, and Mary Elizabeth Bronson, who taught her young son Latin and Greek. He attended Syracuse University, graduating in 1881 (Ph. D., 1887; LL.D., 1905). He studied to be a lawyer concentrating in arts and humanities, but accepted an instructorship in mathematics at the Cortland Normal School in 1884 where he attended as a young man. While at the Cortland Normal School Smith became a member of the Young Men's Debating Club (today the Delphic Fraternity.) He became a professor at the Michigan State Normal College in 1891 (later Eastern Michigan University), the principal at the State Normal School in Brockport, New York (1898), and a professor of mathematics at Teachers College, Columbia University (1901) where he remained until his retirement in 1926. Smith became president of the Mathematical Association of America in 1920 and served as the president of the History of Science Society in 1927. He also wrote a large number of publications of various types. He was editor of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society; contributed to other mathematical journals; published a series of textbooks; translated Felix Klein's Famous Problems of Geometry, Fink's History of Mathematics, and the Treviso Arithmetic. He edited Augustus De Morgan's A Budget of Paradoxes (1915) and wrote many books on Mathematics.

David Hilbert

David Hilbert (1862 – 1943) was a German mathematician. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory and the axiomatization of geometry. He also formulated the theory of Hilbert spaces, one of the foundations of functional analysis. Hilbert adopted and warmly defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed significantly to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic, as well as for being among the first to distinguish between mathematics and meta/mathematics. INTRODUCTION. Geometry, like arithmetic, requires for its logical development only a small number of simple, fundamental principles. These fundamental principles are called the axioms of geometry. The choice of the axioms and the investigation of their relations to one another is a problem which, since the time of Euclid, has been discussed in numerous excellent memoirs to be found in the mathematical literature. This problem is tantamount to the logical analysis of our intuition of space. The following investigation is a new attempt to choose for geometry a simple and complete set of independent axioms and to deduce from these the most important geometrical theorems in such a manner as to bring out as clearly as possible the significance of the different groups of axioms and the scope of the conclusions to be derived from the individual axioms.

David Hume

David Hume (/ˈhjuːm/; 7 May [O.S. 26 April] 1711 – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment.[1] Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist.[2] Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic "science of man" that examined the psychological basis of human nature. In stark opposition to the rationalists who preceded him, most notably Descartes, he concluded that desire rather than reason governed human behaviour, saying: "Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions".[3] A prominent figure in the sceptical philosophical tradition and a strong empiricist, he argued against the existence of innate ideas, concluding instead that humans have knowledge only of things they directly experience. Thus he divides perceptions between strong and lively "impressions" or direct sensations and fainter "ideas", which are copied from impressions. He developed the position that mental behaviour is governed by "custom", that is acquired ability; our use of induction, for example, is justified only by our idea of the "constant conjunction" of causes and effects. Without direct impressions of a metaphysical "self", he concluded that humans have no actual conception of the self, only of a bundle of sensations associated with the self.

David Lindsay

David Lindsay (1876 – 1945) was an English author now best remembered for the philosophical science fiction novel A Voyage to Arcturus (1920). Lindsay was born into a middle-class Scottish Calvinist family in London, and was brought up partly in Jedburgh, where he had family background. He was educated at Colfe's School, Lewisham, and won a scholarship to university, but for financial reasons went into business, becoming an insurance clerk at Lloyd's of London. He was successful, but his career was interrupted by service in the World War I, at the age of 40. He first joined the Grenadier Guards, then the Royal Army Pay Corps, where he was promoted to Corporal. After the war Lindsay moved to Cornwall with his young wife to become a full-time writer. A Voyage to Arcturus was published in 1920, but it was not a success, selling fewer than six hundred copies. This work has links with Scottish fantasists (for example, George MacDonald, whose work Lindsay was familiar with), and it was in its turn a central influence on C. S. Lewis's Out of the Silent Planet. Also, J. R. R. Tolkien said he read the book "with avidity", and characterised it as a work of philosophy, religion, and morality. Lindsay attempted to write a more commercial novel with his next work The Haunted Woman (1922), but this was barely more successful than the Voyage.[3] He continued to write novels, including the humorous potboiler The Adventures of Monsieur de Mailly, but after Devil's Tor in 1932 he found it increasingly difficult to get his work issued, and spent much of his time on his last work The Witch which was not published in his lifetime. He and his wife opened a boarding house in Brighton, but they did not prosper and their marriage underwent considerable strain. The house was damaged by the first bomb to fall on Brighton in the World War II and Lindsay, who was in his bath at the time, never recovered from the shock. His death from an infection resulting from an abscess in his tooth was unrelated to the bomb.

E. R. Eddison

Eric Rücker Eddison, (1882 – 1945) was an English civil servant and author, writing epic fantasy novels under the name E. R. Eddison. His notable works include The Worm Ouroboros (1922) and the Zimiamvian Trilogy (1935-1958). Born in Adel, Leeds, Eddison's early education came from a series of private tutors, whom he shared with the young Arthur Ransome. Ransome recalls Eddison's daring and machiavellian methods of getting rid of unpopular teachers in his autobiography. Afterwards Eddison was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Oxford and joined the Board of Trade in 1906, retiring in 1938 to work full-time on his fiction. He was also a member of the Viking Society for Northern Research. During a distinguished career he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1924 and a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1929 for public service with the Board of Trade. He and his wife had one child, a daughter. Their son-in-law, Kenneth Hesketh Higson, a Royal Air Force pilot, died in an air fight over Italy in the Second World War. Writing: Eddison is best known for the early romance The Worm Ouroboros (1922) and for three volumes set in the imaginary world Zimiamvia, known as the Zimiamvian Trilogy: Mistress of Mistresses (1935), A Fish Dinner in Memison (1941), and The Mezentian Gate (1958). These early works of high fantasy drew strong praise from J. R. R. Tolkien,[5] C. S. Lewis, (alongside whom he was considered an occasional member of the Inklings) and later, Ursula K. Le Guin. Tolkien generally approved Eddison's literary style, but found the underlying philosophy rebarbative; while Eddison in turn thought Tolkien's views "soft". Other admirers of Eddison's work included James Stephens, who wrote the introduction to the 1922 edition; James Branch Cabell, who provided a foreword for the 1926 American edition; Robert Silverberg, who described The Worm Ouroboros as "the greatest high fantasy of them all"; and Clive Barker.

Edgar Rice Burroughs

Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American writer, best known for his creations of the jungle hero Tarzan and the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter, although he produced works in many genres. Early life: Burroughs was born on September 1, 1875, in Chicago, Illinois (he later lived for many years in the suburb of Oak Park), the fourth son of businessman and Civil War veteran Major George Tyler Burroughs (1833–1913) and his wife Mary Evaline (Zieger) Burroughs (1840–1920). His middle name is from his paternal grandmother, Mary Rice Burroughs (1802-ca. 1870).

Edward Clodd

Edward Clodd (1 July 1840, Margate, Kent – 16 March 1930) was an English banker, writer and anthropologist. He cultivated a very wide circle of literary and scientific friends, who periodically met at Whitsun gatherings at his home at Aldeburgh, Suffolk.

Edwin A. Grosvenor

Edwin Augustus Grosvenor (1845 – 1936) was a historian, author, chairman of the history department at Amherst College, and longtime president of the national organization of Phi Beta Kappa societies. Grosvenor was called "one of the most cosmopolitan of Americans" by author and abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Grosvenor was born in 1845 in West Newbury, MA, the son of Dr. Edwin Prescott Grosvenor and the author Harriet (Sanborn) Grosvenor. He prepared at Brown High School in Newburyport, MA, and graduated from Amherst College in 1867 as class poet and salutatorian. After graduating, he served as a tutor at Robert College in Constantinople, Turkey. After returning to the U.S., he obtained an M. A. from Amherst College and was ordained as a minister in Newburyport, 1872. In 1872 Edwin Grosvenor returned to Robert College with his young wife and began teaching. Grosvenor then taught at Amherst College from 1892 to 1914, and was professor emeritus until his death in 1936. His two volume Constantinople was "the most important treatise . . . that has yet appeared in English,” wrote a reviewer in the Springfield Republican. “One of the books of the year.

Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (1840 – 1902) was a French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'accuse. Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

F. W. Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ˈniːtʃə/[42] or /ˈnitʃi/;[43] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's key ideas include the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, the Will to Power, the "death of God", the Übermensch and eternal recurrence. One of the key tenets of his philosophy is the concept of "life-affirmation," which embraces the realities of the world in which we live over the idea of a world beyond. It further champions the creative powers of the individual to strive beyond social, cultural, and moral contexts.[44] His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary, and his influence remains substantial, particularly in the continental philosophical schools of existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism. His ideas of individual overcoming and transcendence beyond structure and context have had a profound impact on late-twentieth and early-twenty-first century thinkers, who have used these concepts as points of departure in the development of their philosophies.[45][46] Most recently, Nietzsche's reflections have been received in various philosophical approaches which move beyond humanism, e.g. metahumanism, posthumanism, transhumanism.

Felipe Trigo

Felipe Trigo Sánchez (1864 – 1916) fue médico rural y militar, y posteriormente escritor español. Nacido en Villanueva de la Serena, en el seno de una familia de clase media con dificultades económicas por la temprana muerte del padre, Felipe Trigo cursó el bachillerato en Badajoz y la carrera de medicina en el Hospital de San Carlos de Madrid. Su experiencia como estudiante forastero en la capital la plasmaría en la novela En la carrera. Tras licenciarse, casado ya con su compañera de facultad, Consuelo Seco de Herrera, ejerció como médico titular en los pueblos pacenses de Trujillanos y Valverde de Mérida, circunstancia biográfica que también novelizaría en El médico rural. Hastiado de la vida rural, entró por oposición en el Cuerpo de Sanidad Militar. Su primer destino fue Sevilla, donde comenzó su actividad periodística que ya había intentado en Madrid. De Sevilla pasó a Trubia, como médico de la fábrica de armas. Años después marchó voluntario a unas Filipinas en plena rebelión. Destinado como médico en Fuerte Victoria, en realidad un destacamento de prisioneros tagalos, estuvo a punto de perder la vida durante una escaramuza. Los sublevados le asestaron no menos de siete machetazos, dejándolo por muerto. Trigo, sin embargo, consiguió huir a campo través, en espantosas condiciones. Con una mano inutilizada, fue repatriado como mutilado de guerra, con el grado de teniente coronel. La prensa le recibió como «el héroe de Fuerte Victoria» y llegó a ser propuesto para la Cruz Laureada de San Fernando. Rechazando la posibilidad de capitalizar políticamente su celebridad, en 1900 se retiró del Ejército y fijó su residencia en Mérida para dedicarse en exclusiva a la literatura. El éxito arrollador de su primera novela, Las ingenuas, en la que relata su dramática peripecia filipina, le convirtió en un auténtico best seller, tanto en España como en América; le permitió llevar una vida de lujo, a caballo entre su Extremadura natal y su chalé de la Ciudad Lineal madrileña, y le dio acceso a los círculos sociales más selectos, ganándose fama de gran señor, dandi y donjuán. En menos de quince años, publicó diecisiete novelas, varias novelas cortas (en las célebres y popularísimas colecciones El Cuento Semanal, primero, y La Novela Corta, ya al final de su vida) y varios relatos, todos ellos con gran acogida del público. En pleno apogeo de su popularidad, el 2 de septiembre de 1916 Felipe Trigo acabó de un tiro con su vida, siendo enterrado en el cementerio de Canillejas. Las razones de su suicidio no están por completo claras. En la nota de despedida y perdón que dejó a su familia, el escritor parece aludir a una enfermedad incurable y mortal; pero es más probable que la enfermedad que en realidad temiese fuera la locura, que venía acechándole de antiguo en forma de una aguda neurastenia. El propio escritor narra en su novela póstuma Si sé por qué un intento anterior de suicidio que, supuestamente, habría llevado a cabo en 1911 durante una estancia en Buenos Aires. En su juventud, Felipe Trigo profesó un socialismo marxista ortodoxo, y llegó a publicar una serie de nueve artículos en El Socialista. Más adelante evolucionó a un reformismo radical pequeño-burgués, en la línea de Melquíades Álvarez, al que dedicó encomiásticamente el prólogo de Jarrapellejos, su principal obra. Durante la dictadura franquista, sobre Felipe Trigo, como sobre tantos otros escritores de su época y características, cayó el silencio editorial y crítico. Sólo a partir de la Transición se reeditaron sus novelas más importantes. Una relación casi exhaustiva de la producción de Felipe Trigo sería la siguiente, por orden cronológico: Cubierta de Cuentos ingenuos. • Las ingenuas (1901) • La sed de amar (Educación social) (1903) • Alma en los labios (1905) • Del frío al fuego (Ellas a bordo) (1906) • La Altísima (1907) • La bruta (1908) • Las posadas del amor (1908) • Sor Demonio (El honor de un marido hidalgo y metafísico) (1909) • En la carrera (Un buen chico estudiante en Madrid) (1909) • Cuentos ingenuos (1909) • Las Evas del paraíso (1909) • Las posadas del amor (1909) • A todo honor (1909) • El cínico (1909) • Mi prima me odia (1909) • Mi media naranja (1910) • Además del frac (1910) • La clave (1910) • A prueba (1910) • Así paga el diablo (1911) • El médico rural (1912) • El náufrago (1912) • El papá de las bellezas (1913) • Los abismos (1913)

Florian Cajori

Florian Cajori (1859 – 1930) was an American historian of mathematics. Florian Cajori immigrated to the United States at the age of sixteen. He received both his bachelor' and master's degrees from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He taught for a few years at Tulane University, before being appointed as professor of applied mathematics there in 1887. He was then driven north by tuberculosis. He founded the Colorado College Scientific Society and taught at Colorado College where he held, at different times, the chair in physics, the chair in mathematics, and the position Dean of the engineering department. While in Colorado, he received his doctorate from Tulane in 1894. Cajori's A History of Mathematics (1894) was the first popular presentation of the history of mathematics in the United States. Based upon his reputation in the history of mathematics (even today his 1928–29 History of Mathematical Notations has been described as "unsurpassed") he was appointed in 1918 to the first history of mathematics chair in the U.S, created especially for him, at the University of California, Berkeley. He remained in Berkeley, California until his death in 1930. Cajori did no original mathematical research unrelated to the history of mathematics. In addition to his numerous books, he also contributed highly recognized and popular historical articles to the American Mathematical Monthly. His last work was a revision of Andrew Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Principia, vol.1 The Motion of Bodies, but he died before it was completed. The work was finished by R.T.Crawford of Berkeley, California.

Frances Hodgson Burnett

Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett (24 November 1849 – 29 October 1924) was an English playwright and author. She is best known for her children's stories, in particular Little Lord Fauntleroy (published in 1885-6), A Little Princess (1905), and The Secret Garden (1911). Frances Eliza Hodgson was born in Cheetham, near Manchester, England. After her father died in 1852, the family eventually fell on straitened circumstances and in 1865 emigrated to the United States, settling near Knoxville, Tennessee. There, Frances began writing to help earn money for the family, publishing stories in magazines from the age of 19. In 1870 her mother died and in 1872 she married Swan Burnett, who became a medical doctor after which they lived in Paris for two years where their two sons were born before returning to the US to live in Washington D.C. There she began to write novels, the first of which (That Lass o' Lowries), was published to good reviews. Little Lord Fauntleroy was published in 1886 and made her a popular writer of children's fiction, although her romantic adult novels written in the 1890s were also popular. She wrote and helped to produce stage versions of Little Lord Fauntleroy and A Little Princess.

Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban,[1][a] QC (/ˈbeɪkən/; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism.[4] His works established and popularised inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.

Francis Scott Fitzgerald

F. Scott Fitzgerald was one of the major American writers of the twentieth century -- a figure whose life and works embodied powerful myths about our national dreams and aspirations. Fitzgerald was talented and perceptive, gifted with a lyrical style and a pitch-perfect ear for language. He lived his life as a romantic, equally capable of great dedication to his craft and reckless squandering of his artistic capital. He left us one sure masterpiece, The Great Gatsby; a near-masterpiece, Tender Is the Night; and a gathering of stories and essays that together capture the essence of the American experience. His writings are insightful and stylistically brilliant; today he is admired both as a social chronicler and a remarkably gifted artist.

Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-language writer of novels and short stories, regarded by critics as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Kafka strongly influenced genres such as existentialism. Most of his works, such as "Die Verwandlung" ("The Metamorphosis"), Der Process (The Trial), and Das Schloss (The Castle), are filled with the themes and archetypes of alienation, physical and psychological brutality, parent–child conflict, characters on a terrifying quest, labyrinths of bureaucracy, and mystical transformations. Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In his lifetime, most of the population of Prague spoke Czech, and the division between Czech- and German-speaking people was a tangible reality, as both groups were strengthening their national identity. The Jewish community often found itself in between the two sentiments, naturally raising questions about a place to which one belongs. Kafka himself was fluent in both languages, considering German his mother tongue.

Fritz Reiche

Fritz Reiche (Jul 4, 1883 — Jan 14, 1969) was a student of Max Planck and a colleague of Albert Einstein, who was active in, and made important contributions to the early development of quantum mechanics including co-authoring the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Reiche published more than 55 scientific papers and books including The Quantum Theory. After studying in Germany, Reich emigrated to the United States in 1941 and went on to work with NASA and the United States Navy on projects related to supersonic flow.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

Meet the Author Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Russian: 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and philosopher. Dostoyevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the context of the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmosphere of 19th-century Russia. He began writing in his 20s, and his first novel, Poor Folk, was published in 1846 when he was 25. His major works include Crime and Punishment (1866), The Idiot (1869), and The Brothers Karamazov (1880). His output consists of eleven novels, three novellas, seventeen short novels and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest and most prominent psychologists in world literature. Born in Moscow in 1821, Dostoyevsky was introduced to literature at an early age through fairy tales and legends, and through books by Russian and foreign authors. His mother died in 1837, when he was 15, and around the same time he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute. After graduating, he worked as an engineer and briefly enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn extra money. In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which gained him entry into St. Petersburg's literary circles. In 1849 he was arrested for his involvement in the Petrashevsky Circle, a secret society of liberal utopians that also functioned as a literary discussion group. He and other members were condemned to death, but at the last moment, a note from Tsar Nicholas I was delivered to the scene of the firing squad, commuting the sentence to four years' hard labour in Siberia. His seizures, which may have started in 1839, increased in frequency there, and he was diagnosed with epilepsy. On his release, he was forced to serve as a soldier, before being discharged on grounds of ill health. In the following years, Dostoyevsky worked as a journalist, publishing and editing several magazines of his own and later A Writer's Diary, a collection of his writings. He began to travel around western Europe and developed a gambling addiction, which led to financial hardship. For a time, he had to beg for money, but he eventually became one of the most widely read and highly regarded Russian writers. His books have been translated into more than 170 languages.

G. Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950) was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. He was also an essayist, novelist and short story writer. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy which makes their stark themes more palatable. Issues which engaged Shaw's attention included education, marriage, religion, government, health care, and class privilege. He was most angered by what he perceived as the exploitation of the working class. An ardent socialist, Shaw wrote many brochures and speeches for the Fabian Society. He became an accomplished orator in the furtherance of its causes, which included gaining equal rights for men and women, alleviating abuses of the working class, rescinding private ownership of productive land, and promoting healthy lifestyles. For a short time he was active in local politics, serving on the London County Council. In 1898, Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They settled in Ayot St Lawrence in a house now called Shaw's Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries he incurred by falling from a ladder.

George Boole

George Boole (1815 – 1864) was an English mathematician, philosopher and logician. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is now best known as the author of The Laws of Thought. Boole said, ... no general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognise ... those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning ... Boole was born in Lincolnshire, England. His father, John Boole (1779–1848), was a tradesman in Lincoln, and gave him lessons. He had an elementary school education, but little further formal and academic teaching. William Brooke, a bookseller in Lincoln, may have helped him with Latin; which he may also have learned at the school of Thomas Bainbridge. He was self-taught in modern languages. At age 16 Boole became the breadwinner for his parents and three younger siblings, taking up a junior teaching position in Doncaster, at Heigham's School. He taught briefly in Liverpool. Boole participated in the local Mechanics Institute, the Lincoln Mechanics' Institution, which was founded in 1833. Edward Bromhead, who knew John Boole through the Institution, helped George Boole with mathematics books; and he was given the calculus text of Sylvestre François Lacroix by Rev. George Stevens Dickson, of St Swithin Lincoln. Without a teacher, it took him many years to master calculus. In 1841 Boole published an influential paper in early invariant theory. He received a medal from the Royal Society for his memoir of 1844, On A General Method of Analysis. It was a contribution to the theory of linear differential equations, moving from the case of constant coefficients on which he had already published, to variable coefficients. The innovation in operational methods is to admit that operations may not commute. In 1847 Boole published The Mathematical Analysis of Logic , the first of his works on symbolic logic. At age 19 Boole successfully established his own school at Lincoln. Four years later he took over Hall's Academy, at Waddington, outside Lincoln, following the death of Robert Hall. In 1840 he moved back to Lincoln, where he ran a boarding school. With E. R. Larken and others he set up a building society in 1847. He associated also with the Chartist Thomas Cooper, whose wife was a relation. From 1838 onwards Boole was making contacts with sympathetic British academic mathematicians, and reading more widely.

George Cruikshank

George Cruikshank (1792 – 1878) was a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the "modern Hogarth" during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens, and many other authors, reached an international audience. Cruikshank was born in London. His father, Isaac Cruikshank, was one of the leading caricaturists of the late 1790s and Cruikshank started his career as his father's apprentice and assistant. His older brother, Isaac Robert, also followed in the family business as a caricaturist and illustrator. Cruikshank's early work was caricature; but in 1823, at the age of 31, he started to focus on book illustration. He illustrated the first, 1823 English translation (by Edgar Taylor and David Jardine) of Grimms' Fairy Tales, published in two volumes as German Popular Stories. On 16 October 1827, he married Mary Ann Walker (1807–1849). Two years after her death, on 7 March 1851, he married Eliza Widdison. The two lived at 263 Hampstead Road, North London. Upon his death, it was discovered that Cruikshank had fathered 11 illegitimate children with a mistress named Adelaide Attree, his former servant, who lived close to where he lived with his wife. Adelaide was ostensibly married and had taken the married surname 'Archibold'.

George Finlay

About the Author Finlay was born at Faversham, Kent, where his Scottish father, Captain John Finlay FRS, an officer in the Royal Engineers, was inspector of government powder mills. His father died in 1802, and his Scottish mother and uncle (Kirkman Finlay) took hand of his education. His love of history was attributed to his mother. Intended for the law, he was educated at the University of Glasgow, the University of Gottingen, and the University of Edinburgh, but becoming an enthusiast in the cause of Greece, he joined Byron in the war of independence, and thereafter bought a property near Athens, where he settled and busied himself with schemes for the improvement of the country, which met with little success. His History of Greece, produced in sections between 1843 and 1861, did not at first receive the recognition which its merits deserved, but it has since been given by scholars in all countries, and specially in Germany, a place among works of permanent value, alike for its literary style and the depth and insight of its historical views. It was re-issued in 1877 as A History of Greece from the Roman Conquest to the Present Time (146 BC to 1864).

George Robert Sims

George Robert Sims (1847 – 1922) was an English journalist, poet, dramatist, novelist and bon vivant. Sims began writing lively humour and satiric pieces for Fun magazine and The Referee, but he was soon concentrating on social reform, particularly the plight of the poor in London's slums. A prolific journalist and writer he also produced a number of novels. Sims was also a very successful dramatist, writing numerous plays, often in collaboration, several of which had long runs and international success. He also bred bulldogs, was an avid sportsman and lived richly among a large circle of literary and artistic friends. Sims earned a fortune from his productive endeavours but had gambled most of it away by the time of his death. Sims was born in Kennington, London, England. His parents were George Sims, a prosperous merchant, and Louisa Amelia Ann Stevenson Sims, president of the Women's Provident League. Sims was the oldest of six children, who were exposed to their parents' cosmopolitan artistic and progressive friends, including suffragists. He grew up in Islington, London, and his mother often took him to the theatre. He was educated in Eastbourne and then Hanwell Military College and the University of Bonn. He had begun to write poetry at the age of ten, and at Bonn he wrote some plays, including an adaptation of Dr. Wespe by Benedix. He completed his studies in Germany and France, where he also became interested in gambling. In Europe, he translated Balzac's Contes drôlatiques, which was published in 1874 by Chatto and Windus; but it was considered too racy and was withdrawn, only to be reissued in 1903. Sims was married three times and was twice a widower. In 1876, he married Sarah Elizabeth Collis (b. 1850). In 1888, he married Annie Maria Harriss (b. 1859). Finally, in 1901, he married Elizabeth Florence Wykes (b. 1873) who survived him. None of these marriages produced any children. The Times wrote in Sims's obituary that "so attractive and original was the personality revealed in his abundant output—for he was a wonderfully hard worker—that no other journalist has ever occupied quite the same place in the affections not only of the great public but also of people of more discriminating taste.... Sims was indeed a born journalist, with the essential flair added to shrewd common sense, imagination, wide sympathies, a vivid interest in every side of life, and the most ardent patriotism.... He was [also] a highly successful playwright...

Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 –1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including The Decameron and On Famous Women. As a poet who wrote in the Italian vernacular, Boccaccio is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue, which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot. Short Biography: The details of Boccaccio's birth are uncertain. He was born in Florence or in a village near Certaldo where his family was from. He was the son of aFlorentine merchant, Boccaccino di Chellino, and an unknown woman; he was likely born out of wedlock. Boccaccio's stepmother was called Margherita de' Mardoli. Early life Boccaccio grew up in Florence. His father worked for the Compagnia dei Bardi and in the 1320s married Margherita dei Mardoli, who was of a well-to-do family. Boccaccio may have been tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante. In 1326, when his father was appointed head of a bank, Boccaccio moved with his family to Naples. Boccaccio was an apprentice at the bank but disliked the banking profession. He persuaded his father to let him study law at the Studium, where for the next six years he studied canon law. He also pursued his interest in scientific and literary studies. His father introduced him to the Neapolitan nobility and the French-influenced court of Robert the Wise (the king of Naples) in the 1330s. At this time he fell in love with a married daughter of the king, who is portrayed as "Fiammetta" in many of Boccaccio's prose romances, including Il Filocolo (1338). Boccaccio became a friend of fellow Florentine Niccolò Acciaioli, and benefited from his influence as the administrator, and perhaps the lover, of Catherine of Valois-Courtenay, widow of Philip I of Taranto. Acciaioli later became counselor to Queen Joan I of Naples and, eventually, her Grand Seneschal. It seems Boccaccio enjoyed law no more than banking, but his studies allowed him the opportunity to study widely and make good contacts with fellow scholars. His early influences included Paolo da Perugia (a curator and author of a collection of myths, the Collectiones), the humanists Barbato da Sulmona and Giovanni Barrili, and the theologian Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro.

Gizel Hazan

Gizel Hazan (Ender) is a graduate of Ankara College and one of the first graduates of Bosphorus University computer programming department. Back in those years she developed an interest for Yoga which she continuously improved through the years. After getting married in İzmir she worked in banking sector and then as a computer teacher besides these, on child psychology issue, she had the Holistic Child Psychologist BA., moreover, she constantly enhanced her knowledge on Far East awareness. After becoming a Reiki Master, life brought the street animals to her life from whom she used to be scared so much that she could not even come close to them and then she started to struggle for their right to live. Giving importance to a good family life, Gizel Hazan supported her husband, who is an Agricultural doctor, by writing the first computer programmes in agriculture and poultry subjects. She tried hard to bring up her daughter who is doing her doctorate in psychology in New York and her Oxford University graduate son as physically and mentally balanced youngsters during their compelling school years. Apart from her own children, she taught “Personal Improvement” to most of her computer students, doing her best to help them progress in life path as happy, healthy, joyful persons. After believing that physical and mental health of a person is worsened in city life covered by concretes, Gizel Hazan moved to Urla district in Izmir, with her husband and “two feet” (daughter and son) and “four feet” (her dogs and cats) children. In Urla, she opened a “REAL ESTATE AGENCY” so that the other people can also benefit from the fine weather there. The information presented in this book, is a bunch of example issues collected of the customers that come to the real estate agency during one year. All of them are based on true stories and they continue to be experienced by most of the families. Gizel Hazan wishes that everybody lives a happy and healthy life in his/her own house.

Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was an influential French writer widely considered one of the greatest novelists in Western literature. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), for his Correspondence, and for his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert. Early life and education Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department of Upper Normandy, in northern France. He was the second son of Anne Justine Caroline (née Fleuriot; 1793–1872) and Achille-Cléophas Flaubert (1784–1846), a surgeon. He began writing at an early age, as early as eight according to some sources. He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, and did not leave until 1840, when he went to Paris to study law. In Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo. Toward the end of 1840, he traveled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris and abandoned the study of law.

H. G. Wells

Herbert George "H. G." Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946) was an English writer, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing textbooks and rules for war games. Wells is sometimes called "The Father of Science Fiction", as are Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback. His most notable science fiction works include The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The Island of Doctor Moreau. Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context. He was also from an early date an outspoken socialist, often (but not always, as at the beginning of the First World War) sympathising with pacifist views. His later works became increasingly political and didactic, and he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of "Journalist." Most of his later novels were not science fiction. Some described lower-middle class life (Kipps; The History of Mr Polly), leading him to be touted as a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and even attempted, in Tono-Bungay (1909), a diagnosis of English society as a whole.

Hakan Aras

Hakan Aras, Mart 1987 istanbul kadıköy doğumludur. Koşuyolunda yaşamaktadır. Okul hayatı aynı semtte bulunan ilköğretim okullarında ve yine aynı bölgede bulunan lisede sürdü. Lisans eğitimini ise Anadolu Üniversitesinde Kamu Yönetimi bölümünden mezun olarak tamamladı. Çocukluk dönemlerimde okula giderken aynı zaman da atletizm ile ilgilendi ve dokuz yıl spor yaptım. Spor akademisine girmeyi başaramayınca spor hayatını sonlandırdı. Renkli bir karaktere sahip olduğunu düşünen yazar müzikten, Türk Sanat Müziği ve Klasik Müzik tutkunudur. Lisede, Tarih en sevdiği dersti, iyi bir tarihçi olduğunu düşünüyor. Maket yapıyor ve hobileriyle oldukça fazla zaman ayırmaya özen gösteriyor. Felsefe alanında bir eğitimi olmamasına rağmen aforizmalar yazıyor ve kendi alanını devlet felsefesi olarak tanımlıyor ve bu konuda bir kitabı da var. Özel sektörde, kitapçılık alanında çalışıyor. Dünyanın en güzel işi ile ilgileniyor kendince ve kitaplardan asla kopamıyor. Askeri tarih, siyasi tarih ve de özellikle devletlerin bilinmeyen, anlatılmayan tarihleri ile ilgileniyor. Askerliğini Ankara’da kısa dönem olarak yaptı ve ardından iş hayatına atıldı. Hobileri ve yazar kişiliği ile hayatın vermiş olduğu monotonluktan sıyrılmaya özen gösteriyor. Ailesi, çekirdek bir aile. Koşuyolu gibi güzel bir semtte yaşıyor. Yazar, İkinci kitabı e-kitap olarak yayında, başarılı olacağına inanıyor ve ikinci kitabının, başarısının paralelliği ile birlikte seri halinde devamının gelmesini diliyoruz ve geleceğini şimdiden tasarlıyor ve de ideallerinin peşinden koşmaya devam ediyor.

Hakan Demirkol

Hakan Demirkol, 25-11-1984 Tarihinde Hatay’ın Dörtyol ilçesinde doğdu. İlk, Orta ve Lise öğrenimini Hatay’da tamamladı. Halen bir devlet kurumunda memur olarak çalışmaktadır. First and foremost, this book is dedicated to “Those who love and are loved”. Dear readers, this work is my first trial in novel. I hope you will enjoy it. “One can’t be judged on his first work” they say. And last but not least, I hope I have the blessing of you all HAKAN DEMİRKOL Love should be a one-time thing, and that one time should be with you, until the end. HAKAN DEMİRKOL

Hans Christian Andersen

Hans Christian Andersen (1805 – 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children; his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality. Andersen's fairy tales, which have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness, readily accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well. Some of his most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", "The Nightingale", "The Snow Queen", "The Ugly Duckling", "Thumbelina", and many more. His stories have inspired ballets, both animated and live-action films, and plays. Early life: "It doesn't matter about being born in a duckyard, as long as you are hatched from a swan's egg" "The Ugly Duckling" Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Denmark, on 2 April 1805. He was an only child. Andersen's father, also Hans, considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a higher social class,[4] but investigations prove these stories unfounded. Theories suggesting that Andersen may have been an illegitimate son of King Christian VIII of Denmark persist. Andersen's father, who had received an elementary education, introduced Andersen to literature, reading to him Arabian Nights.[6] Andersen's mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was uneducated and worked as a washerwoman following his father's death in 1816; she remarried in 1818.[6] Andersen was sent to a local school for poor children where he received a basic education and was forced to support himself, working as an apprentice for a weaver and, later, for a tailor. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. Having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet. Taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing. Andersen's childhood home in Odense: Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, felt a great affection for Andersen and sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse, persuading King Frederick VI to pay part of the youth's education. Andersen had already published his first story, "The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave" (1822). Though not a keen student, he also attended school at Elsinore until 1827. He later said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life. At one school, he lived at his schoolmaster's home. There he was abused in order "to improve his character", he was told. He later said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.

Henri Poincare

Jules Henri Poincaré (1854 – 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist by Eric Temple Bell, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, which was one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. He is also considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology. Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz (1853–1928) in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell's equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity.

Henrik Ibsen

Henrik Johan Ibsen (Norwegian:; 20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of realism" and is one of the founders of Modernism in theatre. His major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People, Emperor and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, Ghosts, The Wild Duck, Rosmersholm, and The Master Builder. He is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare, and A Doll's House became the world's most performed play by the early 20th century.

Henry Adams

Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U.S. Presidents. As a young Harvard graduate, he was secretary to his father, Charles Francis Adams, Lincoln’s ambassador in London, a posting that had much influence on the younger man, both through experience of wartime diplomacy and absorption in English culture, especially the works of John Stuart Mill. After the American Civil War, he became a noted political journalist who entertained America’s foremost intellectuals at his homes in Washington and Boston. In his lifetime, he was best known for his History of the United States During the Administration of Thomas Jefferson, a 9-volume work, praised for its literary style, but sometimes criticised for inaccuracy. His posthumously-published memoirs, The Education of Henry Adams, won the Pulitzer Prize, and went on to be named by The Modern Library as the top English-language nonfiction book of the twentieth century.

Henry Gray

Henry Gray (1827 – 13 June 1861) was an English anatomist and surgeon most notable for publishing the book Gray’s Anatomy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) at the age of 25. Biography: Gray was born in Belgravia, London, in 1827 and lived most of his life in London. In 1842, he entered as a student at St. George’s Hospital, London (then situated in Belgravia, now moved to Tooting), and he is described by those who knew him as a most painstaking and methodical worker, and one who learned his anatomy by the slow but invaluable method of making dissections for himself. While still a student, Gray secured the triennial prize of Royal College of Surgeons in 1848 for an essay entitled The Origin, Connexions and Distribution of nerves to the human eye and its appendages, illustrated by comparative dissections of the eye in other vertebrate animals. In 1852, at the early age of 25, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in the following year he obtained the Astley Cooper prize of three hundred guineas for a dissertation “On the structure and Use of Spleen.” In 1858, Gray published the first edition of Anatomy, which covered 750 pages and contained 363 figures. He had the good fortune of securing the help of his friend Henry Vandyke Carter, a skilled draughtsman and formerly a demonstrator of anatomy at St. George’s Hospital. Carter made the drawings from which the engravings were executed, and the success of the book was, in the first instance, undoubtedly due in no small measure to the excellence of its illustrations. This edition was dedicated to Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, Bart, FRS, DCL. A second edition was prepared by Gray and published in 1860. The book is still published under the title Gray’s Anatomy and is widely appreciated as an extraordinary and authoritative textbook for medical students. Gray held successively the posts of demonstrator of Anatomy, curator of the museum and Lecturer of Anatomy at St. George’s Hospital and was in 1861 a candidate for the post of assistant surgeon. Death: Gray was struck by an attack of confluent smallpox, the most deadly type of the disease where individual lesions become so numerous that they join as a continuous, “confluent” sheet. He is assumed to have been infected due to his extended and meticulous caring for his ten-year-old nephew, Charles Gray, who did eventually recover. On the day he was to appear for an interview as a final candidate for a prestigious post at the St. George’s Hospital, he died in London – 13 June 1861 – at the age of 34. He was buried at St James, Pancras and Highgate Cemetery. Of note is the fact that Gray had been vaccinated against smallpox as a child with one of the early forms of the vaccine.

Herman Melville

Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American writer best known for the novel Moby-Dick. His first three books gained much contemporary attention (the first, Typee, became a bestseller), but after a fast-blooming literary success in the late 1840s, his popularity declined precipitously in the mid-1850s and never recovered during his lifetime. When he died in 1891, he was almost completely forgotten. It was not until the "Melville Revival" in the early 20th century that his work won recognition, especially Moby-Dick, which was hailed as one of the literary masterpieces of both American and world literature. In 1919, the unfinished manuscript for his novella Billy Budd was discovered by his first biographer, Raymond M. Weaver, who published a version in 1924 which was acclaimed by notable British critics as another masterpiece of Melville's. He was the first writer to have his works collected and published by the Library of America.

Hermann Hesse

Hermann Hesse (German; July 2, 1877 – August 9, 1962) was a German-born, Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game, each of which explores an individual's search for authenticity, self-knowledge and spirituality. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.


"Homer" is a Greek name, attested in Aeolic-speaking areas, and although nothing definite is known about him, traditions arose purporting to give details of his birthplace and background. The satirist Lucian, in his True History, describes him as a Babylonian called Tigranes, who assumed the name Homer when taken "hostage" (homeros) by the Greeks. When the Emperor Hadrian asked the Oracle at Delphi about Homer, the Pythia proclaimed that he was Ithacan, the son of Epikaste and Telemachus, from the Odyssey. These stories were incorporated into the various Lives of Homer compiled from the Alexandrian period onwards. Homer is most frequently said to be born in the Ionian region of Asia Minor, at Smyrna, or on the island of Chios, dying on the Cycladic island of Ios. A connection with Smyrna seems to be alluded to in a legend that his original name was Melesigenes ("born of Meles", a river which flowed by that city), and his mother the nymph Kretheis. Internal evidence from the poems gives evidence of familiarity with the topography and place-names of this area of Asia Minor; for example, Homer refers to meadow birds at the mouth of the Caystros, a storm in the Icarian sea, and mentions that women in Maeonia and Caria stain ivory with scarlet. The association with Chios dates back to at least Semonides of Amorgos, who cited a famous line in the Iliad (6.146) as by "the man of Chios". An eponymous bardic guild, known as the Homeridae (sons of Homer), or Homeristae ('Homerizers') appears to have existed there, tracing descent from an ancestor of that name, or upholding their function as rhapsodes or "lay-stitchers" specialising in the recitation of Homeric poetry. Wilhelm Dörpfeld suggests that Homer had visited many of the places and regions which he describes in his epics, such as Mycenae, Troy, the palace of Odysseus at Ithaca and more. According to Diodorus Siculus, Homer had even visited Egypt.

Honore de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (French: [ɔ.nɔ.ʁe d(ə) bal.zak]; 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Due to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature. He is renowned for his multifaceted characters, who are morally ambiguous. His writing influenced many subsequent novelists such as Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Eça de Queirós, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gustave Flaubert, Benito Pérez Galdós, Marie Corelli, Henry James, William Faulkner, Jack Kerouac, and Italo Calvino, and philosophers such as Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. Many of Balzac's works have been made into or have inspired films, and they are a continuing source of inspiration for writers, filmmakers and critics.

Howard Pyle

Howard Pyle was an American illustrator and author, primarily of books for young people. During 1894 he began teaching illustration at the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry (now Drexel University), and after 1900 he founded his own school of art and illustration named the Howard Pyle School of Illustration Art. The term Brandywine School was later applied to the illustration artists and Wyeth family artists of the Brandywine region by Pitz. Some of his more famous students were N. C. Wyeth, Frank Schoonover, Elenore Abbott, Ethel Franklin Betts, Anna Whelan Betts, Harvey Dunn, Clyde O. DeLand, Philip R. Goodwin, Violet Oakley, Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle, Olive Rush, Allen Tupper True, and Jessie Willcox Smith. His 1883 classic publication The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood remains in print, and his other books, frequently with medieval European settings, include a four-volume set on King Arthur. He is also well known for his illustrations of pirates, and is credited with creating the now stereotypical modern image of pirate dress. He published an original novel, Otto of the Silver Hand, in 1888. He also illustrated historical and adventure stories for periodicals such as Harper's Weekly and St. Nicholas Magazine. His novel Men of Iron was made into a movie in 1954, The Black Shield of Falworth. Pyle travelled to Florence, Italy to study mural painting during 1910, and died there in 1911 from a kidney infection (Bright's Disease).

Hugh Blackburn

He succeeded Thomson's father James in the Chair of Mathematics. Hugh Blackburn was brought up at Killearn House, Stirlingshire, the seventh of eight children of the wealthy Glasgow merchant John Blackburn and his wife Rebecca Leslie Gillies, the daughter of a Church of Scotland minister, and a relative of Colin Maclaurin. His elder brother was the judge Colin Blackburn, Baron Blackburn. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy and Eton before entering Trinity College, Cambridge in 1840. There he met Thomson, who entered in the same year; he was also a member of the Cambridge Apostles. During this time he invented the Blackburn pendulum. In the Mathematical Tripos examinations of 1845 he graduated fifth wrangler, while Thomson graduated second wrangler. He entered the Inner Temple in 1847, but was never called to the Bar; his name was withdrawn in 1849, the year in which he became Professor of Mathematics at the University of Glasgow. Works: A treatise on trigonometry, London, 1855. Part of the Encyclopedia Metropolitana. A short sketch of the constitutional history of the University of Glasgow and of Glasgow College in that University : with remarks on the Universities (Scotland) Bill, 1858 (ed. with William Thomson ) Sir Isaac Newton's Principia, 1871 Elements of plane trigonometry for the use of the junior class of mathematics in the University of Glasgow, 1871

Hugo Munsterberg

“Hugo Munsterberg”, (1863, Danzig, Prussia [now Gdansk, Poland]—died 1916, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.), German-American psychologist and philosopher who was interested in the applications of psychology to law, business, industry, medicine, teaching, and sociology. Munsterberg took his Ph. D. in 1885 and his M.D. at the University of Heidelberg in 1887. After his appointment as an instructor at the University of Freiburg, where he established a psychological laboratory, he began publishing Beitrage zur experimentellen Psychologie (1889–92; “Contributions to Experimental Psychology”). His work was criticized by German colleagues but won the approval of the American psychologist William James, who invited him to be a visiting professor at Harvard University (1892–95). Munsterberg returned to the United States permanently in 1897 to direct the Harvard psychological laboratory, and he became increasingly absorbed with the application of psychology to a number of different areas, including psychic research. He is sometimes credited with being the founder of applied psychology. His works include Psychology and the Teacher (1909), Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913), and Psychology: General and Applied (1914).

I. Todhunter

Isaac Todhunter (1820 – 1884), was an English mathematician who is best known today for the books he wrote on mathematics and its history. The son of George Todhunter, a Nonconformist minister, and Mary née Hume, he was born at Rye, Sussex. He was educated at Hastings, where his mother had opened a school after the death of his father in 1826. He became an assistant master at a school at Peckham, attending at the same time evening classes at the University College, London where he was influenced by Augustus De Morgan. In 1842 he obtained a mathematical scholarship and graduated as B.A. at London University, where he was awarded the gold medal on the M.A. examination. About this time he became mathematical master at a school at Wimbledon. In 1844 Todhunter entered St John's College, Cambridge, where he was senior wrangler in 1848, and gained the first Smith's Prize and the Burney Prize; and in 1849 he was elected to a fellowship, and began his life of college lecturer and private tutor. In 1862 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1865 a member of the Mathematical Society of London. In 1871 he gained the Adams Prize and was elected to the council of the Royal Society. He was elected honorary fellow of St John's in 1874, having resigned his fellowship on his marriage in 1864. In 1880 his eyesight began to fail, and shortly afterwards he was attacked with paralysis. He is buried in the Mill Road cemetery, Cambridge.

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.[1] Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),[2] aimed to explain the relationship between reason and human experience. With this project, he hoped to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He attempted to put an end to what he considered an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume. Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level, all human experience shares certain essential structural features. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause and effect.[3] One important consequence of this view is that one never has direct experience of things, the so-called noumenal world, and that what we do experience is the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses. These claims summarize Kant's views upon the subject–object problem. Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology. Kant aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and rationalist approaches. The former asserted that all knowledge comes through experience; the latter maintained that reason and innate ideas were prior. Kant argued that experience is purely subjective without first being processed by pure reason. He also said that using reason without applying it to experience only leads to theoretical illusions. The free and proper exercise of reason by the individual was a theme both of the Age of Enlightenment, and of Kant's approaches to the various problems of philosophy. His ideas influenced many thinkers in Germany during his lifetime, and he moved philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists. Kant is seen as a major figure in the history and development of philosophy.

J. Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. With the publication of A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field in 1865, Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light. Maxwell proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The unification of light and electrical phenomena led to the prediction of the existence of radio waves. Maxwell helped develop the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. He is also known for presenting the first durable colour photograph in 1861 and for his foundational work on analysing the rigidity of rod-and-joint frameworks (trusses) like those in many bridges. His discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest influence on 20th-century physics. His contributions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. In the millennium poll—a survey of the 100 most prominent physicists—Maxwell was voted the third greatest physicist of all time, behind only Newton and Einstein. On the centenary of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton".

Jack London

Jack London (12 Ocak 1876, San Francisco - 22 Kasım 1916, Kaliforniya), ABD'li gazeteci ve roman yazarı. Vahşetin Çağrısı, Martin Eden, Demir Ökçe, Beyaz Diş ve Deniz Kurdu başta olmak üzere elliden fazla kitabın yazarı olan Jack London, Dünya ticari dergi romanının öncüsü ve yazarlıktan yüksek gelir elde edebilen Amerikalıların ilklerindendir. John Griffith "Jack" London (born John Griffith Chaney, January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American author, journalist, and social activist. He was a pioneer in the then-burgeoning world of commercial magazine fiction and was one of the first fiction writers to obtain worldwide celebrity and a large fortune from his fiction alone. He is best remembered as the author of The Call of the Wild and White Fang, both set in the Klondike Gold Rush, as well as the short stories "To Build a Fire", "An Odyssey of the North", and "Love of Life". He also wrote of the South Pacific in such stories as "The Pearls of Parlay" and "The Heathen", and of the San Francisco Bay area in The Sea Wolf. London was a passionate advocate of unionization, socialism, and the rights of workers and wrote several powerful works dealing with these topics such as his dystopian novel The Iron Heel, his non-fiction exposé The People of the Abyss, and The War of the Classes.

Jacob Abbott

Jacob Abbott (1803 – 1879) was an American writer of children's books. On November 14, 1803, Abbott was born in Hallowell, Maine. Abbott's father was Jacob Abbott and his mother was Betsey Abbott. Abbott attended the Hallowell Academy. Abbott graduated from Bowdoin College in 1820. Abbott studied at Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, and 1824. Abbott was tutor in 1824–1825. From 1825 to 1829 was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Amherst College; was licensed to preach by the Hampshire Association in 1826; founded the Mount Vernon School for Young Ladies in Boston in 1829, and was principal of it in 1829–1833; was pastor of Eliot Congregational Church (which he founded), at Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1834–1835; and was, with his brothers, a founder, and in 1843–1851 a principal of Abbott's Institute, and in 1845–1848 of the Mount Vernon School for Boys, in New York City. He was a prolific author, writing juvenile fiction, brief histories, biographies, religious books for the general reader, and a few works in popular science. He wrote 180 books and was a coauthor or editor of 31 more. He died in Farmington, Maine, where he had spent part of his time after 1839, and where his brother, Samuel Phillips Abbott, founded the Abbott School. His Rollo Books, such as Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in Europe, etc., are the best known of his writings, having as their chief characters a representative boy and his associates. In them Abbott did for one or two generations of young American readers a service not unlike that performed earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at Home, The History of Sandford and Merton, and the The Parent's Assistant. To follow up his Rollo books, he wrote of Uncle George, using him to teach the young readers about ethics, geography, history, and science. He also wrote 22 volumes of biographical histories and a 10 volume set titled the Franconia Stories.

James Baldwin

James Baldwin (1841 - 1925) According to his biography in the Junior Book of Authors (1951), Baldwin, a native of Indiana and largely self-educated, began teaching at the age of 24. After several years he became superintendent of the graded schools in Indiana, a post he held for 18 years. The last 37 years of his life he worked with publishers, first with Harper and Brothers and later with the American Book Company. In addition to editing school books, he started writing books of his own. After the publication in 1882 of The Story of Siegfried, he went on to write more than 50 others. His influence was widely felt because at one time it was estimated that of all the school books in use in the United States, over half had been written or edited by him. Unfortunately, his works are much less widely known today. So far as known, only some of his books are in print and published today. Books: Date Story Category 1882 The Story of Siegfried Legends 1883 The Story of Roland Legends 1887 A Story of the Golden Age of Greek Heroes Mythology 1895 Fairy Stories and Fables Readers 1895 Old Greek Stories Mythology 1896 Fifty Famous Stories Retold Collective Biography 1897 Four Great Americans Collective Biography 1903 The Wonder-Book of Horses Mythology 1904 Abraham Lincoln, A True Life ---- 1905 Thirty More Famous Stories Retold Collective Biography 1905 Robinson Crusoe Written Anew for Children Adapted Literature 1907 An American Book of Golden Deeds Ethical Faith Stories 1910 Stories of Don Quixote Written A new for Children Fiction 1912 The Sampo Legends 1912 Fifty Famous People Collective Biography 1914 In My Youth Individual Biography

James Fenimore Cooper

James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York, which was established by his father William. Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church and in his later years contributed generously to it.[1] He attended Yale University for three years, where he was a member of the Linonian Society, but was expelled for misbehavior.[2] Before embarking on his career as a writer he served in the U.S. Navy as a Midshipman which greatly influenced many of his novels and other writings. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Among naval historians Cooper's works on the early U.S. Navy have been well received, but they were sometimes criticized by his contemporaries. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece..

James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in an array of contrasting literary styles, perhaps most prominent among these the stream of consciousness technique he perfected. Other major works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His complete oeuvre also includes three books of poetry, a play, occasional journalism, and his published letters.

James Matthew Barrie

Sir James Matthew Barrie, (9 May 1860 – 19 June 1937) was a Scottish author and dramatist, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. The child of a family of small-town weavers, he was educated in Scotland. He moved to London, where he developed a career as a novelist and playwright. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys who inspired him in writing about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens (included in The Little White Bird), then to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about this ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland. This play quickly overshadowed his previous work and although he continued to write successfully, it became his best-known work, credited with popularising the name Wendy, which was very uncommon previously. Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents. Barrie was made a baronet by George V in 1913, and a member of the Order of Merit in 1922. Before his death, he gave the rights to the Peter Pan works to London's Great Ormond Street Hospital, which continues to benefit from them.

James P. Boyd

HENRY M. STANLEY, Stanley is safe; the world’s rejoicings; a new volume in African annals; who is “this wizard of travel?” story of Stanley’s life; a poor Welsh boy; a work-house pupil; teaching school; a sailor boy; in a New Orleans counting-house; an adopted child; bereft and penniless; a soldier of the South; captured and a prisoner; in the Federal Navy; the brilliant correspondent; love of travel and adventure; dauntless amid danger; in Asia-Minor and Abyssinia; at the court of Spain; in search of Liv-ingstone; at Ujiji on Tanganyika; the lost found; across the “dark continent;” down the dashing Congo; boldest of all marches; acclaim of the world. THE CONGO FREE STATE, A Congo’s empire; Stanley’s grand conception; European ambitions; the Inter-national Association; Stanley off for Zanzibar; enlists his carriers; at the mouth of the Congo; preparing to ascend the river; his force and equipments; the river and river towns; hippopotamus hunting; the big chiefs of Vivi; the “rock-breaker;” founding stations; making treaties; tribal characteristics; Congo scenes; elephants, buffaloes and water-buck; building houses and planting gardens; making roads; rounding the portages; river crocodiles and the steamers; foraging in the wilder-ness; products of the country; the king and the gong; no more war fetish; above the cataracts; Stanley Pool and Leopoldville; comparison of Congo with other rivers; exploration of the Kwa; Stanley sick; his return to Europe; further plans for his “Free State;” again on the Congo; Bolobo and its chiefs; medicine for wealth; a free river, but no land; scenery on the upper Congo; the Watwa dwarfs; the lion and his prey; war at Bolobo; the Equator station; a long voyage ahead; a modern Hercules; tropical scenes; a trick with a tiger skin; hostile natives; a canoe brigade; the Aruwimi; ravages of slave traders; captive women and children; to Stanley Falls; the cataracts; appointing a chief; the people and products; wreck of a steamer; a horrible massacre; down the Congo to Stanley Pool; again at Bolobo; a burnt station; news from missionaries; at Leopoldville; down to Vivi; the treaties with chiefs; treaty districts; the Camaroon country; oil river region; Stanley’s return to London; opinions of African life; thirst for rum; adventures and accidents..

Jane Austen

Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism, biting irony and social commentary have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics. Austen lived her entire life as part of a close-knit family located on the lower fringes of the English landed gentry. She was educated primarily by her father and older brothers as well as through her own reading. The steadfast support of her family was critical to her development as a professional writer. Her artistic apprenticeship lasted from her teenage years into her thirties. During this period, she experimented with various literary forms, including the epistolary novel which she then abandoned, and wrote and extensively revised three major novels and began a fourth. From 1811 until 1816, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began a third, which was eventually titled Sanditon, but died before completing it.

Jane Margaret Strickland

Jane Margaret Strickland (18 April 1800 – 14 June 1888) was A British writer. Short Life: Strickland was born in Kent in 1800. The daughter of Thomas Strickland and Elizabeth (born Homer} of Reydon Hall, Suffolk, Her siblings were Elizabeth; Sarah; Agnes, Catharine Parr, Susanna and Samuel Strickland. All of the children except Sarah eventually became writers. By 1840 she had two sisters living in Canada and two others who had moved out of the house leaving Jane to look after her mother who died in 1864. In 1854 Jane published a schoolbookRome, Regal and Republican: A Family History of Rome that was edited by her sister Agnes. The proceeds made her financially independent and allowed her to buy her own cottage. In 1856 she published Adonijah which is an unlikely, but engaging, story about a Jewish child living at the time of the Roman Empire who eventually becomes a Christian. Strickland published a biography of her sister Agnes in 1887 and died at her cottage in Southwold the following year.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Émile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings — his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker — exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. He argued that private property was conventional and the beginning of true civil society.

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (German: [ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfɡaŋ fɔn ˈɡøːtə] ( listen), 28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. His body of work includes epic and lyric poetry written in a variety of metres and styles; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him are extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Carl August in 1782 after first taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe served as a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace, which in 1998 were together designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[1] After returning from a tour of Italy in 1788, his first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. His conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have, in later years, been collectively termed Weimar Classicism.

Johanna Spyri

Johanna Spyri (German: [joˈhana ˈʃpiːri]; 12 June 1827 – 7 July 1901) was a Swiss-born author of children's stories, and is best known for her book Heidi. Born Johanna Louise Heusser in the rural area of Hirzel, Switzerland, as a child she spent several summers in the area around Chur in Graubünden, the setting she later would use in her novels.

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes,(1883 – l 1946), was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics and informed the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and he is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics and its various offshoots. In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. Keynes instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate "boom and bust" cycles of economic activity. He advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. Following the outbreak of World War II, Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were adopted by leading Western economies. In 1942, Keynes was awarded a hereditary peerage as Baron Keynes of Tilton in the County of Sussex. Keynes died in 1946; but, during the 1950s and 1960s, the success of Keynesian economics resulted in almost all capitalist governments adopting its policy recommendations. Keynes's influence waned in the 1970s, partly as a result of problems that began to afflict the Anglo-American economies from the start of the decade and partly because of critiques from Milton Friedman and other economists who were pessimistic about the ability of governments to regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the advent of the global financial crisis of 2007–08 caused a resurgence in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics provided the theoretical underpinning for economic policies undertaken in response to the crisis by President Barack Obama of the United States, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, and other heads of governments.

John Milton

John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse. Milton's poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. Writing in English, Latin, Greek, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagitica (1644)—written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship—is among history's most influential and impassioned defenses of free speech and freedom of the press. William Hayley's 1796 biography called him the "greatest English author," and he remains generally regarded "as one of the preeminent writers in the English language," though critical reception has oscillated in the centuries since his death (often on account of his republicanism). Samuel Johnson praised Paradise Lost as "a poem which...with respect to design may claim the first place, and with respect to performance, the second, among the productions of the human mind," though he (a Tory and recipient of royal patronage) described Milton's politics as those of an "acrimonious and surly republican". Because of his republicanism, Milton has been the subject of centuries of British partisanship.

John Tyndall

John Tyndall (1820 – 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism. Later he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall also published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London. Early years and education: Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland. His father was a local police constable, descended from Gloucestershire emigrants who settled in southeast Ireland around 1670. Tyndall attended the local schools in County Carlow until his late teens, and was probably an assistant teacher near the end of his time there. Subjects learned at school notably included technical drawing and mathematics with some applications of those subjects to land surveying. He was hired as a draftsman by the Ordnance Survey of Ireland in his late teens in 1839, and moved to work for the Ordnance Survey for Great Britain in 1842. In the decade of the 1840s, a railroad-building boom was in progress, and Tyndall's land surveying experience was valuable and in demand by the railway companies. Between 1844 and 1847, he was lucratively employed in railway construction planning. In 1847 Tyndall opted to become a mathematics and surveying teacher at a boarding school (Queenwood College) in Hampshire. Recalling this decision later, he wrote: "the desire to grow intellectually did not forsake me; and, when railway work slackened, I accepted in 1847 a post as master in Queenwood College." Another recently arrived young teacher at Queenwood was Edward Frankland, who had previously worked as a chemical laboratory assistant for the British Geological Survey. Frankland and Tyndall became good friends. On the strength of Frankland's prior knowledge, they decided to go to Germany to further their education in science. Among other things, Frankland knew that certain German universities were ahead of any in Britain in experimental chemistry and physics. (British universities were still focused on classics and mathematics and not laboratory science.) The pair moved to Germany in summer 1848 and enrolled at the University of Marburg, where Robert Bunsen was an influential teacher. Tyndall studied under Bunsen for two years.[4] Perhaps more influential for Tyndall at Marburg was Professor Hermann Knoblauch, with whom Tyndall maintained communications by letter for many years afterwards. Tyndall's Marburg dissertation was a mathematical analysis of screw surfaces in 1850 (under Friedrich Ludwig Stegmann). He stayed at Marburg for a further year doing research on magnetism with Knoblauch, including some months' visit at the Berlin laboratory of Knoblauch's main teacher, Heinrich Gustav Magnus. It is clear today that Bunsen and Magnus were among the very best experimental science instructors of the era. Thus, when Tyndall returned to live in England in summer 1851, he probably had as good an education in experimental science as anyone in England.

Jonas Lie

Jonas Lauritz Idemil Lie (Norwegian: 1833 – 1908) was a Norwegian novelist, poet, and playwright who is considered to have been one of the Four Greats of 19th century Norwegian literature, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjornstjerne Bjornson and Alexander Kielland. Jonas Lie was born at Hokksund in Ovre Eiker, in the county of Buskerud, Norway. Five years after his son's birth, Lie's father was appointed sheriff of Tromso, which lies within the Arctic Circle, and young Jonas Lie spent six of the most impressionable years of his life at that remote port. He was sent to the naval school at Fredriksvaen; but his defective eyesight caused him to give up a life at sea. He transferred to the Bergen Cathedral School (Bergen katedralskole) in Bergen, and in 1851 entered the University of Christiania, where he made the acquaintance of Ibsen and Bjornson. He graduated in law in 1857, and shortly afterwards began to practice at Kongsvinger, a town located between Lake Mjosa and the border with Sweden.

Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. He is remembered for works such as Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, Drapier's Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, and A Tale of a Tub. Swift originally published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, MB Drapier – or anonymously. He is also known for being a master of two styles of satire: the Horatian and Juvenalian styles.

Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad (born; Berdichev, Imperial Russia, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924, Bishopsbourne, Kent, England) was a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England. He was granted British nationality in 1886, but always considered himself a Pole. Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in English, though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in his twenties (and always with a marked accent). He wrote stories and novels, often with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an indifferent universe. He was a master prose stylist who brought a distinctly non-English tragic sensibility into English literature.

Joseph Maclise


Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his adventure novels and his profound influence on the literary genre of science fiction. Born to bourgeois parents in the seaport of Nantes, Verne was trained to follow in his father's footsteps as a lawyer, but quit the profession early in life to write for magazines and the stage. His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages Extraordinaires, a widely popular series of scrupulously researched adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and Around the World in Eighty Days. Verne is generally considered a major literary author in France and most of Europe, where he has had a wide influence on the literary avant-garde and on surrealism. His reputation is markedly different in Anglophone regions, where he has often been labeled a writer of genre fiction or children's books, not least because of the highly abridged and altered translations in which his novels are often reprinted. Verne is the second most-translated author in the world since 1979, between the English-language writers Agatha Christie and William Shakespeare, and probably was the most-translated during the 1960s and 1970s. He is one of the authors sometimes called "The Father of Science Fiction", as are H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback.

Kenneth Grahame

Kenneth Grahame (8 March 1859 – 6 July 1932) was a Scottish writer, most famous for The Wind in the Willows (1908), one of the classics of children's literature. He also wrote The Reluctant Dragon; both books were later adapted into Disney films.

King James

James gave the translators instructions intended to guarantee that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy. The translation was done by 47 scholars, all of whom were members of the Church of England. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament was translated from Hebrew text, while the Apocrypha were translated from the Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer (1662), the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible – for Epistle and Gospel readings – and as such was authorized by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version was effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and Protestant churches. Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English speaking scholars. Today, the most used edition of the King James Bible, and often identified as plainly the King James Version, especially in the United States, closely follows the standard text of 1769, edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford.

Leonard E. Dickson Ph. D.

Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874 – 1954) was an American mathematician. He was one of the first American researchers in abstract algebra, in particular the theory of finite fields and classical groups, and is also remembered for a three-volume history of number theory, History of the Theory of Numbers. Dickson considered himself a Texan by virtue of having grown up in Cleburne, where his father was a banker, merchant, and real estate investor. He attended the University of Texas at Austin, where George Bruce Halsted encouraged his study of mathematics. Dickson earned a B.S. in 1893 and an M.S. in 1894, under Halsted's supervision. Dickson first specialised in Halsted's own specialty, geometry. Both the University of Chicago and Harvard University welcomed Dickson as a Ph.D. student, and Dickson initially accepted Harvard's offer, but chose to attend Chicago instead. In 1896, when he was only 22 years of age, he was awarded Chicago's first doctorate in mathematics, for a dissertation titled The Analytic Representation of Substitutions on a Power of a Prime Number of Letters with a Discussion of the Linear Group, supervised by E. H. Moore. Dickson then went to Leipzig and Paris to study under Sophus Lie and Camille Jordan, respectively. On returning to the USA, he became an instructor at the University of California. In 1899 and at the extraordinarily young age of 25, Dickson was appointed associate professor at the University of Texas. Chicago countered by offering him a position in 1900, and he spent the balance of his career there. At Chicago, he supervised 53 Ph.D. theses; his most accomplished student was probably A. A. Albert. He was a visiting professor at the University of California in 1914, 1918, and 1922. In 1939, he returned to Texas to retire. Dickson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1913, and was also a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the London Mathematical Society, the French Academy of Sciences and the Union of Czech Mathematicians and Physicists. Dickson was the first recipient of a prize created in 1924 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science, for his work on the arithmetics of algebras. Harvard (1936) and Princeton (1941) awarded him honorary doctorates.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian) ; 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519, Old Style) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci states that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time. Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, in Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded him by Francis I. Leonardo was, and is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, textbooks, and T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived, the small number because of his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo. Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, an armoured vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine,[6] and the double hull, also outlining a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on later science.

Lev Tolstoy

Lev Nikolayeviç Tolstoy (Rusça: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; 9 Eylül 1828 - 20 Kasım 1910), Rus yazar. Zengin bir ailenin çocuğu olarak Yasnaya-Polyana'da doğdu. Çok küçük yaşlarında önce annesini, sonra babasını kaybetti, yakınlarının elinde büyüdü. Çocukluğundan beri gerçekleri incelemeye karşı büyük bir ilgisi vardı. Öğrenimini tamamlamak için Moskova'ya gitti. Çalışkan zeki bir öğrenci olarak başarı ve sevgi kazandı. Fransızcasını ilerletmiş, Voltaire'i ve J. J. Rousseau'yu okumuş, bu iki yazarın kuvvetli etkisinde kalmıştı. Yasnaya-Polyana'ya döndü, yoksul köylüler arasına katıldı. İlk eseri olan "Çocukluk"u bu sıralarda yazdı. Leon Tolstoy in May 1908 Tolstoy was born in Yasnaya Polyana, the family estate in the Tula region of Russia. The Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian nobility. He was the fourth of five children of Count Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy, a veteran of the Patriotic War of 1812, and Countess Mariya Tolstaya (Volkonskaya). Tolstoy's parents died when he was young, so he and his siblings were brought up by relatives. In 1844, he began studying law and oriental languages at Kazan University. His teachers described him as "both unable and unwilling to learn." Tolstoy left university in the middle of his studies, returned to Yasnaya Polyana and then spent much of his time in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. In 1851, after running up heavy gambling debts, he went with his older brother to the Caucasus and joined the army. It was about this time that he started writing.

Lewis Carroll

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer. His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, as well as the poems "The Hunting of the Snark" and "Jabberwocky", all examples of the genre of literary nonsense. He is noted for his facility at word play, logic, and fantasy, and there are societies in many parts of the world (including the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and New Zealand) dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life.

Louis Adolphe Coerne

Louis Adolphe Coerne (1870 – 1922) was an American composer and music educator. He was born in Newark, New Jersey, and was educated at Harvard University, where he studied under John Knowles Paine, and in Europe. Coerne wrote a number of pedagogical pieces for piano, and also composed a number of orchestral works, one of which, thetone poem Excalibur (Op. 180), was recorded by Karl Krueger with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in the late 1960s, and reissued on CD in 2006 by Bridge Records. His cantata, Hiawatha (op. 18), was premiered in Munich in 1893 and performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1894. Coerne's opera, Zenobia (op. 66), premiered in Bremen, Germany, in 1905, and was the first opera by an American composer to be performed in Germany. Earlier that year, Harvard had conferred on Coerne the degree of Ph.D., with the score ofZenobia and his book, The Evolution of Modern Orchestration (published in 1908), serving as his thesis. Other operas composed by Coerne: • A Woman of Marblehead (op. 40) • Sakuntala (op. 67) • The Maiden Queen (op. 69) Coerne taught at Smith College, Harvard, and Connecticut College. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, on September 11, 1922.

Luis Coloma

Luis Coloma (1851 - 1914) was a Spanish author known for creating the character Ratoncito Pérez. Coloma was also a prolific writer of short stories and his complete works, which includes his novels, biographies, and other works, have since been collected in a multi-volume set. He studied at the University of Seville, where he graduated with a Master's degree in law, although he never got to practice law. In 1908 Coloma became a member of the Real Academia. In 1880 Coloma began work on Pequeñeces on behalf of the Society of Jesus.[3] The work is a political satire of the high Madrid society in the years previous to the Bourbon Restoration, and is considered to be one of his more well known works.[4] This work has received much criticism, as some felt that it was overly pessimistic and "too narrowly bigoted in tone to have any lasting vogue". Coloma promoted literature but was critical of novels in general, as he felt that they gave an overly idealized portrayal of human life and sentimentalized religion. In his later years Coloma only published biographies and writings of a historical nature, such as Jeromín, which focused on Don Juan de Austria.

M. Kemal Atatürk

Atatürk'ün Hayatı ve İnkılapları 1881 - 1914 19 Mayıs 1881 Atatürk'ün Selanik'te doğuşu. 1893 Mustafa'nın Selanik Rüştiyesi'ne yazılması ve öğretmeni Mustafa Efendi'nin kendisine "KEMAL" adını takması. 1896 Mustafa Kemal'in Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi'ni bitirerek Manastır Akeri İdadisi'ne girişi. 13 Mart 1899 Mustafa Kemal'in Manastır Askeri İdadisi'ni bitirerek, İstanbul'da Harp Okuluna girişi. 10 Şubat 1902 Mustafa Kemal'in Harp Okulu'nu teğmen rütbesi ile bitirerek, Harp Akademisine geçişi. 11 Ocak 1905 Mustafa Kemal'in Kurmay Yüzbaşı olarak Harp Akademisi'nden mezun oluşu ve merkezi Şam'da bulunan 5. Ordu emrine verilmesi. Ekim 1906 Mustafa Kemal'in bazı arkadaşlarıyla birlikte Şam'da gizli "Vatan ve Hürriyet" cemi-yetini kurması. 20 Haziran 1907 Mustafa Kemal'in rütbesinin (Kolağası)lığına kıdemli Yüzbaşı'lığına yükseltilme-si. 13 Ekim 1907 Mustafa Kemal'in Selanik'teki III. Orduya atanması. 15-16 Nisan 1909 Mustafa Kemal'in 31 Mart (13 Nisan) ayaklanması üzerine Hareket Ordusunun Kurmay Başkanı olarak İstanbul'a hareket etmesi. 6 Eylül 1909 Mustafa Kemal'in Selanik'te III. Ordu Piyade Subay Talimgahı Komutanı olması (Aynı yıl içinde Kolağası rütbesiyle 38. Piyade Alayı Komutanı olmuştur.) Mayıs 1910 Mustafa Kemal'in Mahmut Şevket Paşa'nın Kurmay Başkanı olarak Arnavutluk hare-ketlerinde bulunması. Eylül 1910 Fransa'da yapılan manevralara Türk Ordusu Temsilcisi olarak katılması. 13 Eylül 1911 Mustafa Kemal'in İstanbul'da Genelkurmay'a nakledilmesi. 27 Kasım 1911 Mustafa Kemal'in İtalyan-Osmanlı Trablus Savaşı'nda Tobruk taaruzunu başarıyla idare etmesi. 25 Kasım 1912 Mustafa Kemal'in Bahrisefd Boğazı (Çanakkale) Kuvay-ı Mürettebesi Hareket Şubesi Müdürlüğüne atanması. 27 Ekim 1913 Mustafa Kemal'in Sofya Ataşemiliteri olması. 1 Mart 1914 Mustafa Kemal'in Yarbay'lığa yükselmesi. 1915 2 Şubat 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in Tekirdağ'da 19. Tümen'i kurmaya başlaması. (25 Şubat 1915)te Tümen'in kuruluşunu tamamlayarak Maydos'a gelmiştir. 25 Nisan 1915 İtilaf Devletleri'nin, Arıburnu'na asker çıkarmaları üzerine Mustafa Kemal'in Tü-meniyle düşmanı önleyerek durdurması. 1 Haziran 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in Albay'lığa yükselmesi. 8-9 Ağustos 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in Anafartalar Grubu Komutanlığına atanması. 10 Ağustos 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in bizzat idare ettiği taaruzla Anafartalar cephesi'nde düşmanı geri atması. 17 Ağustos 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in Kireçtepe'de zafer kazanması. 21 Ağustos 1915 Mustafa Kemal'in İkinci Anafartalar Zaferi'ni kazanması. 1916 14 Ocak 1916 Mustafa Kemal'in Edirne'de XVI. Kolordu Komutanlığına başlaması. 1 Nisan 1916 Mustafa Kemal'in Mirliva'lığa (Tuğgeneral) yükselmesi. 7-8 Ağustos 1916 Mustafa Kemal'in Bitlis ve Muş'u düşman elinden geri alması. 1917 7 Mart 1917 Mustafa Kemal'in Diyarbakır'daki II. Ordu Komutanı vekilliğine atanması. 16 Mart 1917 Mustafa Kemal'in Diyarbakır'daki II. Ordu Komutanlığına asil olarak atanması. 5 Temmuz 1917 Mustafa Kemal'in Halep'teki VII. Ordu Komutanı sıfatıyla, memleketin, Ordu-nun durumunu açıklayan tarihi raporunu göndermesi. 15 Ekim 1917 Mustafa Kemal'in VII. Ordu komutanlığından ayrılarak İstanbul'a dönmesi. 15 Aralık 1917 Mustafa Kemal'in Veliaht Vahdettin ile Almanya'ya gitmesi. 16 Aralık 1917 Mustafa Kemal'e "Birinci rütbeden Kılıçlı Mecidi Nişanı" verilmesi. 1918 4 Ocak 1918 Almanya gezisinden dönmesi. 7 Ağustos 1918 Mustafa Kemal'in Filistin'de bulunan VII. Ordu Komutanlığına ikinci defa tayin edilmesi. 26 Ekim 1918 Mustafa Kemal'in komuta ettiği VII. Ordu Birlikleri tarafından düşman taarruzu-nun Halep'in kuzeyinde bugünkü sınırlarımız üzerinde durdurulması. 31 Ekim 1918 Mustafa Kemal'in YILDIRIM ORDULARI GRUBU Komutanı olması. 13 Kasım 1918 Mustafa Kemal'in Yıldırım Orduları grubu Komutanlığının lağvı üzerine İstanbul'a gelmesi. 1919 30 Nisan 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in IX Ordu Müfettişi olması. 15 Mayıs 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in Padişah vahdettin ile görüşmesi. 16 Mayıs 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in Samsun'a gitmek üzere Bandırma vapuru ile İstanbul'dan ay-rılması. 19 Mayıs 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in Samsun'a çıkması. 21/22 Haziran 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in, Amasya'dan gönderdiği genelge ile, milli kuvvetleri bir gaye ve bir teşkilat çevresinde toplamak amacıyla Sivas Kongresi'ni toplamaya çağırması. 26 Haziran 1919 Amasya'dan Sivas'a hareketi. 28 Haziran 1919 Balıkesir'de civar vilayetlerin murahhaslarından mürekkep, Kuvay-ı Milliye Kongresi'nin toplanması. 3 Temmuz 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in kongre için Erzurum'a ilk gelişi. 8-9 Temmuz 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in resmi görevinden (Ordu Müfettişliğinden) istifası. 23 Temmuz 1919 Erzurum Kongresi'nin toplanması ve Mustafa Kemal'in Sivas Kongresi'ne Baş-kan seçilmesi. 11 Eylül 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in, Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti Heyeti Temsili-yesi Başkanlığına seçilmesi. 12 Eylül 1919 Anadolu ve İstanbul irtibatlarının kesilmesi. 7 Ekim 1919 Mebus intibahatına (milletvekili seçimine) başlanacağının ilanı. 10 Ekim 1919 İkinci reddi ilhak kongresinin Balıkesir'de toplanması. 20-22 Ekim 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in, İstanbul'dan gelen Bahriye Nazırı Salih Paşa ile Amasya'da görüşmesi ve Amasya Protokolünün imzalanması. 7 Kasım 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in İstanbul'da toplanması kararlaştırılan Osmanlı Meclisi için Erzu-rum'dan milletvekili seçilmesi. (TBMM'nin Birinci Dönemi için yapılacak seçimde ve ondan son-raki seçimlerde Ankara'dan milletvekili seçilmiştir) 27 Aralık 1919 Mustafa Kemal'in, Heyeti Temsiliye ile birlikte Ankara'ya gelmesi. 1920 10 Ocak 1920 Ankara Hakimiyeti Milli Gazetesinin yayına başlaması. 12 Ocak 1920 İstanbul'da Meclis-i Mebusan'ın açılması. 28 Ocak 1920 Misak-ı Milli'nin İstanbul Meclis-i Mebusan tarafından kabulü. 10 Şubat 1920 İstanbul Meclis-i Mebusanan'ın "Felahi Vatan" Grubunun teşekkülü. 11 Şubat 1920 Maraş'ın Fransızlar tarafından tahliyesi. 3 Mart 1920 Yunanlılar'ın ileri harekata başlaması. 16 Mart 1920 İstanbul'un İtilaf Devletleri tarafından işgali üzerine, Mustafa Kemal'in durumu bütün devletlere ve millet meclislerine protesto etmesi ve Ankara'da yeni bir Millet Meclisi top-lama teşebbüsüne geçmesi. 19 Mart 1920 Ankara'da fevkalade selahiyeti haiz bir Millet meclisi'nin toplanması hakkında Vilayetlere tebliğ. 18 Nisan 1920 İstanbul'da Hilafet Ordusu teşkiline başlanması. 23 Nisan 1920 T.B.M. Meclisi'nin Ankara'da açılması. 24 Nisan 1920 T.B.M.M'nin Mustafa Kemal'i Başkanlığa seçmesi. 29 Nisan 1920 Hiyanet-i Vatan Kanunu'nun TBMM'de kabulü. 2 Mayıs 1920 TBMM'nce Bakanların seçimine dair kanunun kabulü. 4 Mayıs 1920 Bakanlar kurulu toplantısı. 11 Mayıs 1920 Mustafa Kemal'in İstanbul Hükümeti'nce ölüm cezasına çarptırılması. (Bu karar 24 Mayıs 1920'de Padişah tarafından onaylanmıştır.) 10 Ağustos 1920 Sevr Muahedesinin akti. 29 Kasım 1920 İstiklal Madalyası ihdası hakkındaki kanunun TBMM'de kabulü. 1921 9-10 Ocak 1921 I. İnönü Muharebesi. 20 Ocak 1921 İlk Anayasa Kanunu'nun esas maddelerinin kabulü. 12 Mart 1921 İstiklal Marşı'nın TBMM'ce kabulü. 10 Mayıs 1921 Mustafa Kemal tarafından TBMM'ne Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Gru-bunun kurulmasıve kendisinin Grup başkanlığına seçilmesi. 13 Haziran 1921 Mustafa Kemal'in Fransız Elçisi F. Bouillion ile Ankara'da görüşmesi. 5 Ağustos 1921 Büyük Millet Meclisi tarafından Mustafa Kemal'e Başkomutanlık görevinin ve-rilmesi. 15 Ağustos 1921 Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi'nin başlaması (13 Eylül 1921'e kadar) 23 Ağustos 1921 Mustafa kemal'in 22 gün 22 gece süren Sakarya Meydan Muharebesini idareye başlaması. 26 Ağustos 1921 Afyon cephesinde Büyük Taaruzun başlaması. 30 Ağustos 1921 Dumlupınar'da Başkumandanlık Meydan Muharebesinin kazanılması. 13 Eylül 1921 Mustafa Kemal'in Sakarya zaferini kazanması. 19 Eylül 1921 Mustafa Kemal'e TBMM tarafından Müşirlik (Mareşallik) rütbesinin ve Gazi ünva-nının verilmesi. 1922 26 Ağustos 1922 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Kocatepe'den Büyük Taaruzu idareye başlaması. 30 Ağustos 1922 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Dumlupınar'da Başkomutanlık Meydan Savaşı'nı ka-zanması. 1 Eylül 1922 "Ordular, ilk hedefiniz Akdeniz'dir. İleri!" emrinin verilmesi. 2 Eylül 1922 Yunan Başkumandanı General Trikopis ile diğer kumandanlarının esir alınması. 9 Eylül 1922 Türk Ordu'sunun İzmir'e girişi. 10 Eylül 1922 Gazi Mustafa kemal'in İzmir'e girişi. 18 Eylül 1922 Batı Anadolu'nun Yunan Ordusundan tamamiyle temizlenmesi. 3 Ekim 1922 Mudanya Konferansı'nın açılması. 11 Ekim 1922 Mudanya Mütarekesi'nin akdi. 1 Kasım 1922 Gazi Mustafa kemal'in teklif ve müdafaası üzerine TBMM'nin saltanatın kaldırıl-masına karar vermesi. 17 Kasım 1922 Vahdettin'in bir İngiliz gemisi ile İstanbul'dan kaçışı. 18 Kasım 1922 Abdülmecit Efendi'nin Halife seçilmesi. 20 Kasım 1922 Lozan Konferansı'nın açılması. 25 Kasım 1922 Edirne'de milli idarenin kurulması. 6 Aralık 1922 Halk Fırkası'nın kurulacağının ilanı. 1923 13 Ocak 1923 Gazi'nin Orduyu teftişe çıkması ve kuracağı fırka hakkında halk ile temasa geçme-si. 14 Ocak 1923 Mustafa Kemal'in annesi Zübeyde Hanım'ın İzmir'de ölümü. 18 Ocak 1923 Gazi'nin İzmit'te devletin müstakbel faaliyetine dair halka beyanatı. 29 Ocak 1923 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in İzmir'de Latife (Uşaklığil) Hanım'la evlenmesi. (5 Ağustos 1925'te ayrılmışlardır) 3 Şubat 1923 Gazi'nin, İzmir'de kadın hakları ve medreselere dair nutku. 4 Şubat 1923 Lozan Konferansı müzakeratının kesilmesi. 17 Şubat 1923 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in, İzmir'de ilk Türkiye İktisat Kongresi'ni açması. 24 Temmuz 1923 Lozan Muahedesinin akti. 9 Ağustos 1923 Halk Fırkasının teşekkülü. 11 Ağustos 1923 İkinci TBMM'nin açılması. 13 Ağustos 1923 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in, Ankara Milletvekilliğini kazanması. 11 Eylül 1923 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Halk Partisi'ni kurması. 2 Ekim 1923 İstanbul'un İtilaf Devletleri tarafından tahliyesi. 6 Ekim 1923 Türk ordusunun İstanbul'a girişi. 13 Ekim 1923 Ankara'nın Yeni Türk Devleti'nin merkezi olduğuna dair Kanunun kabul edilişi. 29 Ekim 1923 Cumhuriyet'in ilanı. (Saat 20:30) 29-30 Ekim 1923 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in ilk Cumhurbaşkanı seçilmesi. 1924 7 Şubat 1924 Ecnebi mekteplerinde bina dahilindeki dini alamet ve işaretlerin kaldırılması hak-kında karar verilmesi. 14 Şubat 1924 Orduda çiftçi askerlere basit ziraat dersleri verilmesi hakkında kanunun kabulü. 15 Şubat 1924 İzmir'de halifeliğin lağvının kararlaştırılması. 1 Mart 1924 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi'ni açışı ve Halifelik'in kaldırıl-ması ile öğretimin birleştirilmesi gereğini konuşmasında belirtmesi. 2 Mart 1924 Hilafetin/Şeriye ve Evkaf Vesaletlerinin ilgası-Tedrisatın tevhidi tekliflerinin kabulü. 3 Mart 1924 Hilafetin ilgası, tedrisatın tevhidi Şer'iye ve Evkaf Vekaletiyle Erkan-ı Harbiyey-i Umumiye Vekaletinin lağvı hakkındaki kanunların kabulü. 8 Nisan 1924 Şer'iye Mahkemelerinin lağvı hakkındaki Kanunun TBMM'nce kabulü. 20 Nisan 1924 Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasa Kanununun kabulü. 28 Ağustos 1924 İş Bankasının tesisi. 1925 1 Şubat 1925 Genç'te Şeyh Sait isyanının zuhuru. 16 Şubat 1925 Tayyare Cemiyeti'nin teşekkülü. 17 Şubat 1925 Aşar'ın kaldırılması. 4 Mart 1925 Takrir-i Sükun Kanunun neşri ve 2. İstiklal Mahkemesinin kuruluşu. 21 Nisan 1925 ATATÜRK ve Milli Mücadele Kahramanları (İsmet İnönü, Celal Bayar, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, Abdülhak Renda) tarafından kurulan, ilk memurlar Tüketim Kooperatifi. 23 Ağustos 1925 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in, Kastamonu'da ilk defa şapka giymesi. 2 Eylül 1925 Türbelerin, tekke ve zaviyelerin seddipilmiye sınıfı ve devlet memurları kıyafeti kararnamelerinin ilanı. 5 Kasım 1925 Ankara Hukuk Mektebi'nin açılması. 25 Kasım 1925 Şapka kanununun TBMM'ce kabulü. 30 Kasım 1925 Tekkelerin kapatılması hakkındaki kanunun kabulü. 26 Aralık 1925 Beynelmilel takvim ve saatin kabulü. 1926 17 Şubat 1926 Türk Medeni Kanununun kabulü. 29 Nisan 1926 Ecnebilerin kabotaj hakkının nihayet bulması. 22 Mayıs 1926 Emlak ve Eytam Bankası'nın kuruluşu. 3 Ekim 1926 İstanbul'da, Sarayburnu'nda Mustafa Kemal'in ilk heykelinin dikilmesi. 1927 1 Temmuz 1927 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Cumhurbaşkanı sıfatıyla İstanbul'a ilk gelişi. 15/20 Ekim 1927 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in CHP İkinci Kurultayın'da Tarihi Büyük Nutku'nu söyle-mesi. 28 Ekim 1927 Türkiye'de ilk nüfus sayımının yapılması. 1 Kasım 1927 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in ikinci defa Cumhurbaşkanlığına seçilmesi. 4 Kasım 1927 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Ankara Etnografya Müzesi önünde ve Yenişehir'de dikilen heykellerinin açılışı. 1928 5 Şubat 1928 İstanbul'da hutbenin Türkçe okunmaya başlaması. 7 Mart 1928 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in "Le Matin" gazetesi muhabirine demokrasi ile ilgili verdiği demeç. 5 Nisan 1928 C. Halk Fırkası tarafından Laiklik ilkesinin ve Anayasa değişiminin kabulü. 20 Mayıs 1928 Afgan Kralı Amanullah Han'ın Gazi Mustafa Kemal'i Ankara'da ziyareti. 24 Mayıs 1928 Latin rakamlarının kabulü. 23 Haziran 1928 Türk vatandaşlık kanununun kabulü. 26 Haziran 1928 Harf devrimi için bir kurul toplanması. 9-10 Ağustos 1928 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Sarayburnu'nda Türk Harfleri hakkında nutkunu söy-lemesi. 23 Ağustos 1928 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in Tekirdağı'nda yeni harfler üzerine konuşması ve me-murları sınava çekmesi. 25 Ağustos 1928 Ankara'da IV. Muallimler Birliği Kongre'sinde öğretmenlerin yeni harfleri öğre-teceklerine dair ant içmeleri. 1 Kasım 1928 Gazi Mustafa Kemal'in yıllık söylevinde yeni harflere değinmesi. 3 Kasım 1928 Türk Harfleri Kanununun TBMM'de kabulü. 11 Kasım 1928 Millet mektepleri teşkilatına başlanması. 1929 1 Ocak 1929 Millet mekteplerinin açılması. 30 Ocak 1929 Milli İktisat ve Tasarruf Cemiyeti'nin kurulması. 1930 8 Nisan 1930 1580 sayılı Belediyeler Kanununun çıkması (Kadınlara da seçme hakkı tanınıyor.) 11 Haziran 1930 T.C. Merkez Bankasınının kabulü. 12 Ağustos 1930 Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkasının kuruluşu. 17 Kasım 1930 Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası'nın kendini feshi. 23 Aralık 1930 Menemen irtica hadisesi ve Kubilay'ın şehit edilmesi. 1931 12 Nisan 1931 Gazi Mustafa Kemal tarafından Türk Tarih Kurumu'nun kurulması. 4 Mayıs 1931 Mustafa Kemal'in üçüncü defa Cumhurbaşkanlığına seçilmesi. 1932 22 Ocak 1932 Yerebatan Camisindeki Türkçe Kur'an'ın ilk kez okunması. 19 Şubat 1932 Halkevleri'nin kuruluşu. 12 Temmuz 1932 Türk Dil Kurumu'nun kuruluşu. 18 Temmuz 1932 Türkiye'nin Milletler Cemiyet'ine girmesi. 26 Eylül 1932 Türk Dil Kurultay'ı toplandı. 1933 6 Şubat 1933 Gazi'nin Bursa'da gericilik olayı üzerine söyledikleri. 22 Nisan 1933 Osmanlı borçlarının tasfiyesi. 31 Mayıs 1933 İstanbul Darülfünun'un ilgasına ve Maarif Vekaletince yeni bir Üniversite kurul-masına dair kanunun kabulü. 29 Ekim 1933 Cumhuriyetin Onuncu yılının kutlanması, Gazi'nin tarihi Onuncu Yıl Nutkunu oku-ması. 4 Ekim 1933 Yugoslavya Kralı Aleksandre'nin, Gazi Mustafa Kemal'i İstanbul'da ziyareti. 5 Ekim 1933 Eskişehir Şeker Fabrikası'nın açılışı. 1934 1 Ocak 1934 Türk İnkılabı dersleri (Yüksek Tahsilde) başladı. 21 Haziran 1934 Soyadı kanununun kabulü. 16 Haziran 1934 İran Şehin Şahı Rıza Pehlevi'nin Gazi Mustafa Kemal'i Ankara'da ziyareti. 18 Haziran 1934 II. Dil kurultayı Dolmabahçe Saray'ında toplandı. 8 Ekim 1934 Türk kadınına seçme ve seçilme hakkı tanındı. 24 Kasım 1934 TBMM'nin Mustafa Kemal'e ATATÜRK soyadını veren kanunu kabul edişi. 26 Kasım 1934 Lakap ve ünvanların kaldırılması. 17 Aralık 1934 Atatürk'ün soyadı için bir kanun daha çıkartılması. 1935 18 Şubat 1935 Bazı kisvelerin giyilemeyeceğine dair kanunun yayınlanması. 1 Mart 1935 Atatürk'ün dördüncü kez Cumhurbaşkanı seçilmesi. 1936 9 Ocak 1936 Ankara Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi'nin açılışı, ilk ders Prof. Afet İNAN tarafın-dan verilmiştir. 6 Mayıs 1936 Ankara Devlet Konservatuarı'nın kuruluşu. 29 Mayıs 1936 Türk Bayrağı kanununun çıkarılması. 20 Temmuz 1936 Montreux'de, Boğazlar Sözleşmesi'nin imzalanması. 4 Eylül 1936 İngiltere Kralı Edward'ın III.'ün, İstanbul'da Atatürk'ü ziyareti. 1937 9 Temmuz 1937 Altı Ok'un Anayasa'ya girmesi. 11 Mayıs 1937 Atatürk, çiftliklerini hazineye, bir kısım gayrimenkullerini Ankara Belediyesi'ne, bütün parasını Dil ve Tarih kurumlarına bağışladı. 9 Temmuz 1937 Sadabad Paktı'nın imzalanması. 25 Ekim 1937 İsmet İnönü'nün Başbakanlıktan çekilmesi. 2 Şubat 1937 Bursa Merinos Fabrikası'nın Atatürk tarafından törenle açılması. 1938 30 Mart 1938 Atatürk'ün hastalığı hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Genel Sekreterliğince ilk defa resmi tebliğ yayınlaması. 11 Mayıs 1938 Atatürk'ün, çiftliklerini ulusa bağışlaması. 2 Eylül 1938 Bağımsız Hatay Devleti Millet Meclisi'nin ilk toplantısının yapılması. 5 Eylül 1938 Atatürk'ün vasiyetnamesini yazması. (Açılış 28 Kasım 1938) 16 Ekim 1938 Atatürk'ün hastalığı hakkında durumu günlü resmi tebliğler yayımına başlanması. 29 Ekim 1938 Atatürk'ün Türkiye Ordularına mesajı. 10 Kasım 1938 Atatürk'ün ölümü. 21 Kasım 1938 Atatürk'ün cenazesinin Etnografya Müzesi'ndeki geçici kabre konulması. 1953 10 Kasım 1953 Atatürk'ün Na'şının Etnografya Müzesi'ndeki geçici kabrinden, Anırkabir'e nakledilmesi. 1981 1981 UNESCO'nun aldığı bir kararla Atatürk'ün doğumunun 100. yılının bütün dünyada Atatürk Yılı olarak kutlanması.

M. M. Pattison Muir


Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (26 April 121 AD – 17 March 180 AD) was a Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East; Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. In central Europe, Aurelius fought the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians with success during the Marcomannic Wars, with the threat of the Germanic tribes beginning to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. Marcus Aurelius' Stoic tome Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty, describing how to find and preserve equanimity in the midst of conflict by following nature as a source of guidance and inspiration.

Marie Elisabeth Cave

Marie-Elizabeth was a painter, a student of Camille Roqueplan, and was married to the painter Clément Boulanger. She met Delacroix during the famous masked ball at the 1833 Carnaval organized by Alexandre Dumas. A love affair blossomed between the two painters, although after an escapade in Flanders in September 1839, their relationship transformed into a deep friendship, tinged with nostalgia. In 1843 she was remarried to François Cave, then head of the Beaux-Arts at the Interior Ministry. In 1860 she published an essay on drawing, which was reprinted in 1862, with a preface by Delacroix.

Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "the Great American Novel." Twain grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, which provided the setting for Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. After an apprenticeship with a printer, he worked as a typesetter and contributed articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his singular lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. In 1865, his humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," was published, based on a story he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, California, where he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention, and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. Though Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he invested in ventures that lost a great deal of money, notably the Paige Compositor, which failed because of its complexity and imprecision. In the wake of these financial setbacks, he filed for protection from his creditors via bankruptcy, and with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers eventually overcame his financial troubles. Twain chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full, though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after a visit by Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it," too. He died the day following the comet's subsequent return. He was lauded as the "greatest American humorist of his age," and William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature."

Mary Everest Boole

Mary Everest Boole (1832, Wickwar, Gloucestershire – 1916) was a self-taught mathematician who is best known as an author of didactic works on mathematics, such as Philosophy and Fun of Algebra, and as the wife of fellow mathematician George Boole. Her progressive ideas on education, as expounded in The Preparation of the Child for Science, included encouraging children to explore mathematics through playful activities such as 'curve stitching'. Her life is of interest to feminists as an example of how women made careers in an academic system that did not welcome them. She was born Mary Everest in England, the daughter of Revd Thomas Roupell Everest, Rector of Wickwar, and Mary nee Ryall. Her uncle George Everest gave his name to Mount Everest. She spent the first part of her life in France where she received an education in mathematics from a private tutor. On returning to England at the age of 11 she continued to pursue her interest in mathematics through self-instruction. George Boole became her tutor in 1852 and on the death of her father in 1855 they married and moved to Cork County, Ireland. Mary greatly contributed as an editor to Boole's The Laws of Thought, a work on algebraic logic. She had five daughters by him. She was widowed in 1864, at the age of 32, and returned to England where she was offered a post as a librarian at Queen's College, London. She also tutored privately in mathematics and developed a philosophy of teaching that involved the use of natural materials and physical activities to encourage an imaginative conception of the subject. Her interest extended beyond mathematics to Darwinian theory, philosophy and psychology and she organised discussion groups on these subjects among others. She died in 1916 at the age of 84.

Maurice W. Brockwell

About the Author "Leonardo," wrote an English critic as far back as 1721, "was a Man so happy in his genius, so consummate in his Profession, so accomplished in the Arts, so knowing in the Sciences, and withal, so much esteemed by the Age wherein he lived, his Works so highly applauded by the Ages which have succeeded, and his Name and Memory still preserved with so much Veneration by the present Age—that, if anything could equal the Merit of the Man, it must be the Success he met with. Moreover, 'tis not in Painting alone, but in Philosophy, too, that Leonardo surpassed all his Brethren of the 'Pencil.'" This admirable summary of the great Florentine painter's life's work still holds good today. The influence of Leonardo was strongly felt in Milan, where he spent so many of the best years of his life and founded a School of painting. He was a close observer of the gradation and reflex of light, and was capable of giving to his discoveries a practical and aesthetic form. His strong personal character and the fascination of his genius enthralled his followers, who were satisfied to repeat his types, to perpetuate the "grey-hound eye," and to make use of his little devices. Among this group of painters may be mentioned Boltraffio, who perhaps painted the "Presumed Portrait of Lucrezia Crivelli" (Plate VII.), which is officially attributed in the Louvre to the great master himself. His Dessendants Signor Uzielli has shown that one Tommaso da Vinci, a descendant of Domenico (one of Leonardo's brothers), was a few years ago a peasant at Bottinacio near Montespertoli, and had then in his possession the family papers, which now form part of the archives of the Accademia dei Lincei at Rome. It was proved also that Tommaso had given his eldest son "the glorious name of Leonardo."

Mawlana Rumi

Mawlana Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rumi (رومی or also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī , and more popularly in the English-speaking world simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic. Iranians, Turks, Afghans, Tajiks, and other Central Asian Muslims as well as the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy in the past seven centuries. Rumi's importance is considered to transcend national and ethnic borders. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. In 2007, he was described as the "most popular poet in America." Rumi's works are written in Persian and his Mathnawi remains one of the purest literary glories of Persia, and one of the crowning glories of the Persian language. His original works are widely read today in their original language across the Persian-speaking world (Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and parts of Persian speaking Central Asia). Translations of his works are very popular in other countries. His poetry has influenced Persian literature as well as Urdu, Punjabi, Turkish and some other Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages written in Perso-Arabic script e.g. Pashto, Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai and Sindhi.

Maxim Gorky

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Russian: Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; 1868 – 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Russian: Макси́м Го́рькій or Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.[3] He was also a five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writing. Gorky's most famous works were The Lower Depths (1902), Twenty-six Men and a Girl, The Song of the Stormy Petrel, The Mother, Summerfolk and Children of the Sun. He had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov; Gorky would later write his memoirs on both of them. Gorky was active with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement. He publicly opposed the Tsarist regime, and for a time closely associated himself with Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov's Bolshevik wing of the party. For a significant part of his life, he was exiled from Russia and later the Soviet Union. In 1932, he returned to Russia on Joseph Stalin's personal invitation and died there in June 1936. Early years: Born as Alexei Maximovich Peshkov on 28 March [O.S. 16 March] 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod, Gorky became an orphan at the age of eleven. He was brought up by his grandmother and ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880. After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs and accumulating impressions used later in his writing. As a journalist working for provincial newspapers, he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида (Jehudiel Khlamida). He began using the pseudonym "Gorky" (from горький; literally "bitter") in 1892, while working in Tiflis for the newspaper Кавказ (The Caucasus). The name reflected his simmering anger about life in Russia and a determination to speak the bitter truth. Gorky's first book Очерки и рассказы (Essays and Stories) in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success, and his career as a writer began. Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice (though he worked hard on style and form) than as a moral and political act that could change the world. He described the lives of people in the lowest strata and on the margins of society, revealing their hardships, humiliations, and brutalisation, but also their inward spark of humanity.

Maximilian J. Rudwin

About the Author Dr. Maximilian J. Rudwin was an instructor of German at Purdue University.

Mayne Reid

Thomas Mayne Reid (1818 – 1883), was a Scots-Irish American novelist. "Captain" Reid wrote many adventure novels akin to those written by Frederick Marryat and Robert Louis Stevenson. He was a great admirer of Lord Byron. These novels contain action that takes place primarily in untamed settings: the American West, Mexico, South Africa, the Himalayas, and Jamaica. Biography Reid was born in Ballyroney, a small hamlet near Katesbridge, County Down, in the north of Ireland, the son of Rev. Thomas Mayne Reid Sr., who was a senior clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. His father wanted him to become a Presbyterian minister, so in September 1834 he enrolled at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. Although he stayed for four years, he could not motivate himself enough to complete his studies and receive a degree. He headed back home to Ballyroney to teach school. In December 1839 he boarded the Dumfriesshire bound for New Orleans, Louisiana, arriving in January 1840. Shortly afterward he found a job as a clerk for corn factor, or trader in the corn market. He stayed in New Orleans for six months. It is said that he left his position for refusing to whip slaves. (Reid later used Louisiana as the setting of one of his best-selling books, an anti-slavery novel entitled The Quadroon.)

Michel Montaigne

The author of the Essays was born, as he informs us himself, between eleven and twelve o'clock in the day, the last of February 1533, at the chateau of St. Michel de Montaigne. His father, Pierre Eyquem, esquire, was successively first Jurat of the town of Bordeaux (1530), Under-Mayor 1536, Jurat for the second time in 1540, Procureur in 1546, and at length Mayor from 1553 to 1556. He was a man of austere probity, who had "a particular regard for honour and for propriety in his person and attire . . . a mighty good faith in his speech, and a conscience and a religious feeling inclining to superstition, rather than to the other extreme."[Essays, ii. 2.] Pierre Eyquem bestowed great care on the education of his children, especially on the practical side of it.

Miguel De Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra[b] (Spanish: [miˈɣel de θerˈβantes saaˈβeðɾa]; 29 September 1547 (assumed) – 22 April 1616)[1] was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes"). He was dubbed El Príncipe de los Ingenios ("The Prince of Wits"). In 1569, Cervantes moved to Rome where he worked as chamber assistant of a wealthy priest. Cervantes then enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Algerian corsairs. After 5 years of slavery he was released by his captors on ransom from his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order and he subsequently returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel named La Galatea. Because of financial problems, he worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605, he was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death. During the last 9 years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer; he published the Novelas ejemplares (Exemplary Novels) in 1613, the Journey to Parnassus (Viaje al Parnaso) in 1614, and in 1615, the Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the 2nd part of Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes noted that, "Cervantes leaves the page open where the reader knows himself read and the author written."

Moriz Thausing

Moritz Thausing (1838 – 1884) was an Austrian art historian, and counts among the founders of the Vienna School of Art History. The son of a palace official in Schloß Tschischkowitz (modern Čížkovice, in the region of Litoměřice; then in the Kingdom of Bohemia), Thausing began his academic career as a student of German literature and history. He studied first in Prague, and in 1858 went to Vienna, where he studied at the Österreichische Institut für Geschichtsforschung (Austrian Institute for Historical Research). There he came into contact with Rudolf Eitelberger, who since 1852 had held the first chair in art history at the University of Vienna. Under his influence Thausing began to study the history of art. In 1862 he received an appointment as a library assistant at the Akademie der bildenden Künste, where he also gave general lectures on world and cultural history. In 1864 Eitelberger secured a position for him with the print collection of the Albertina, which he would direct beginning in 1868, although he received the formal title of Director only in 1876. In 1871 Thausing was an active participant in the so-called "Holbein convention" in Dresden, at which a number of prominent art historians convened to determine which of two versions of Hans Holbein the Younger's Meyer Madonna was the original work. In 1873, once again due to the advocacy of Eitelberger, Thausing was appointed as a professor extraordinarius for art history at the University, and became ordinarius in 1879. A progressive mental illness overshadowed his final years. His health declined dramatically after he became interim director of the newly founded Istituto Austriaco di studi storici in Rome. Following a temporary commitment to a mental hospital, he died during a vacation in his homeland through drowning (probably intentional) in the Elbe near Litoměřice.

Murat Ukray

MURAT UKRAY, Who is Author was born in 17 August 1976, Istanbul and lives in Istanbul. Also graduate from Yildiz Technical University, Electronics Engineering and after Mastering in Istanbul and go on his studies and works (such as 5-D relativity-2007-, Doomsday Reality:2012-2006- and Jesus Signs-2008-) in here.. Murat UKRAY isimli yazar & yayıncı, aslen UKRAYNA göçmeni olan İstanbullu bir ailenin tek çocuğu olarak 17 Agustos 1976 tarihinde İSTANBUL'da doğdu. İlk, Orta ve Lise öğrenimini istanbul'da tamamladı. Bakırköy Anadolu Ticaret Lisesi'ni başarıyla bitirdikten sonra, YILDIZ TEKNİK üniversitesi ELEKTRONİK Mühendisliği Bölümünde 1995-2000 yılları arasında eğitim gördü ve 2000 yılında mezun oldu ve aynı Üniversitenin FEN BİLİMLERİ Enstitüsünde 2002-2004 yılları arasında Yüksek Lisans öğrenimi gördü, burada ileri teknolojik araştırmalara ve bilimsel çalışmalara katıldı. Daha sonraki yıllarda ise, AMERİKA'daki GÜNEY CALİFORNİYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ (University of Southern California)'da ileri araştırmalar enstitüsünde Bulanık Cebir (Fuzzy Lojik) yapay zeka temelli elektronik devre sistemleri ve Kaotik zaman serilerinin zaman domeni incelemeleri konusu ile Einstein'ın Birleşik Alan Kuramı üzerinde çalışmalar yaptı. Bu çalışmalarının önemli sonuçlarını Akademik makaleler ve Kitap olarak da 2007-2010 yılları arasında yine Amerikada tanıştığı POD (Print on Demand) sistemiyle yayınladığı gibi, bu yayıncılık sistemini 2011 yılından itibaren Türkiyeye getirmek ve modifiye etmek için, 2006 yılından beri yazdığı diğer eserlerle birlikte KLASİK yayıncılıkla eserlerini yayınevlerinde yayınlamak yerine, alternatif olacak bir yayıncılık sistemi şeklinde web yayıncılığının temellerini ilk kez atarak, web çalışmalarına da başlamış ve böylelikle ilk kez dijital ve basılı ortamda kitap yayıncılık hayatına da Türkiye'de başlamış oldu. 2010 yılından beri zaman zaman gittiği AMERİKA'daki aynı isimde kurmuş olduğu (www.kiyametgercekligi.com) web sitesi üzerinden kitaplarını sadece dijital elektronik ortamda, hem düzenli olarak yılda yazmış veya yayınlamış olduğu diğer eserleri de yayın hayatına e-KİTAP ve POD (Print on Demand -talebe göre yayıncılık-) sistemine göre yayın hayatına geçirerek okurlarına sunmayı ilke olarak edinirken; diğer yandan da, projenin SOSYAL yönü olan doğayı korumak amaçlı başlattığı "e-KİTAP PROJESİ" isimli yayıncılık sistemiyle KİTABINI KLASİK SİSTEMLE YAYINLAYAMAYAN "AMATÖR YAZARLAR" için, elektronik ortamda kitap yayıncılığı ile kitaplarını bu sistemle yayınlatmak isteyen PROFESYONEL yayıncılar ve yazarlar için de hemen hemen her çeşit kitabın (MAKALE, AKADEMİK DERS KİTABI, ŞİİR, ROMAN, HİKAYE, DENEME, GÜNLÜK TASLAK) elektronik ortamda yayıncılığının önünü açan e-YAYINCILIĞA başlamıştır..

Nathaniel Hawthorne

He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. His ancestors include John Hathorne, the only judge involved in the Salem witch trials who never repented of his actions. Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, Dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, and a biography of his friend Franklin Pierce.

Niccolo Machiavelli

Niccolo Machiavelli, born at Florence on 3rd May 1469. From 1494 to 1512 held an official post at Florence which included diplomatic missions to various European courts. Imprisoned in Florence, 1512; later exiled and returned to San Casciano. Died at Florence on 22nd June 1527.

Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol , dramatist, novelist and short story writer of Ukrainian ethnicity. Russian and Ukrainian scholars debate whether or not Gogol was of their respective nationalities. Considered by his contemporaries one of the preeminent figures of the natural school of Russian literary realism, later critics have found in Gogol's work a fundamentally romantic sensibility, with strains of Surrealism and the grotesque ("The Nose", "Viy", "The Overcoat," "Nevsky Prospekt"). His early works, such as Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, were influenced by his Ukrainian upbringing, Ukrainian culture and folklore. His later writing satirised political corruption in the Russian Empire (The Government Inspector, Dead Souls), leading to his eventual exile. The novel Taras Bulba (1835) and the play Marriage (1842), along with the short stories "Diary of a Madman", "The Tale of How Ivan Ivanovich Quarreled with Ivan Nikiforovich", "The Portrait" and "The Carriage", round out the tally of his best-known works.

Octave Uzanne

Octave Uzanne (1851 –1931) was a 19th-century French bibliophile, writer, publisher, and journalist. He is noted for his literary research on the authors of the 18th century. He published many previously unpublished works by authors including Paradis Moncrif and Benserade, Caylus and Besenval, and the Marquis de Sade and Baudelaire. He founded the Societe des Bibliophiles Contemporaines, of which he was president. His research produced a considerable literary output and frequent publications in newspapers such as L'Echo, Le Plume, Depeche de Toulouse, Le Mercure de France, Le Gaulois and Le Figaro of Paris. One of the topics his research focused on was the discussion of fashion and femininity in the French fin-de-siecle. This took the form of monographs and works including Son Altesse la femme, Feminies and La Française du siecle. His own works include novels and fantasy books, such as Surprises du Caur (1882) and Contes pour les bibliophiles (1895).

Orville Livingston Leach

About Orville Livingston Leach (1859-1921), inventor, successful patent medicine purveyor, Rhode Island pleasure park owner, and a truly cosmic loon who believed the earth was hollow and the Millennium was near. In his dotage he had a cranky book to prepare, and he sounds like a prime candidate to have been a Lovecraft revision client c.1919-1921.

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death. Wilde's parents were successful Anglo-Irish Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university, Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States and Canada on the new "English Renaissance in Art", and then returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversation, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day.

Pedro Calderon de la Barca

Pedro Calderón de la Barca y Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño, usually referred as Pedro Calderón de la Barca (17 January 1600 – 25 May 1681), was a dramatist, poet and writer of the Spanish Golden Age. During certain periods of his life he was also a soldier and a Roman Catholic priest. Born when the Spanish Golden Age theatre was being defined by Lope de Vega, he developed it further, his work being regarded as the culmination of the Spanish Baroque theatre. As such, he is regarded as one of Spain's foremost dramatists and one of the finest playwrights of world literature.

Peter Ramus

Early life: He was born at the village of Cuts in Picardy; his father was a farmer. He gained admission at age twelve, to the Collège de Navarre, working as a servant. A reaction against scholasticism was in full tide, at a transitional time for Aristotelianism. On the occasion of taking his degree (1536) Ramus allegedly took as his thesis Quaecumque ab Aristotele dicta essent, commentitia esse, which Walter. Ong paraphrases as follows: "All the things that Aristotle has said are inconsistent because they are poorly systematized and can be called to mind only by the use of arbitrary mnemonic devices." According to Ong this kind of spectacular thesis was in fact routine at the time. Even so, Ong raises questions as to whether Ramus actually ever delivered this thesis. Early academic career: Ramus, as graduate of the university, started courses of lectures. At this period he was engaged in numerous separate controversies. One opponent in 1543 was the Benedictine Joachim Périon. He was accused, by Jacques Charpentier, professor of medicine, of undermining the foundations of philosophy and religion. Arnaud d'Ossat, a pupil and friend of Ramus, defended him against Charpentier.[5] Ramus was made to debate Goveanus (Antonio de Gouveia), over two days. The matter was brought before the parlement of Paris, and finally before Francis I. By him it was referred to a commission of five, who found Ramus guilty of having "acted rashly, arrogantly and impudently," and interdicted his lectures (1544).


Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, " 428/427 or 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also a mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his most-famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." Plato's sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him, although 15–18 of them have been contested. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts. Plato's dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. Plato is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. His writings related to the Theory of Forms, or Platonic ideals, are basis for Platonism.

R. Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson, was born at Boston in 1803 into a distinguished family of New England Unitarian ministers. His was the eighth generation to enter the ministry in a dynasty that reached back to the earliest days of Puritan America. Despite the death of his father when Emerson was only eleven, he was able to be educated at Boston Latin School and then Harvard, from which he graduated in 1821.

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (1861 – 1941), was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of the modern Indian subcontinent, being highly commemorated in India and Bangladesh, as well as in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan. A Pirali Brahmin from Kolkata with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym “Bhanusimha” ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. He graduated to his first short stories and dramas—and the aegis of his birth name—by 1877. As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and strident nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, and some two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati University. Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced) and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural contemplation.

Raymond F. Jones

Raymond Fisher Jones (15 November 1915 – 24 January 1994) was an American science fiction author. He is best known for his 1952 novel, This Island Earth, which was adapted into the eponymous 1955 film.

Richard Davey


Robert Hichens

Robert Hichens (1882 – 1940) was a British sailor who was part of the deck crew on board the RMS Titanic when she sank on her maiden voyage on 15 April 1912. He was one of six quartermasters on board the vessel and was at the ship's wheel when the Titanic struck the iceberg.

Robert Hook

Robert Hooke (28 July [O.S. 18 July] 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath. His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity. He was at one time simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society and a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry and a Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London, in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire. He was also an important architect of his time – though few of his buildings now survive and some of those are generally misattributed – and was instrumental in devising a set of planning controls for London whose influence remains today. Allan Chapman has characterised him as "England's Leonardo".

Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. A literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks among the 26 most translated authors in the world. His works have been admired by many other writers, including Jorge Luis Borges, Bertolt Brecht, Arthur Conan Doyle, Cesare Pavese, Ernest Hemingway, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Vladimir Nabokov, J. M. Barrie, and G. K. Chesterton, who said of him that he "seemed to pick the right word up on the point of his pen, like a man playing spillikins."


Sir Peter Paul Rubens ( 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640), was a Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasised movement, colour, and sensuality. He is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

Rudyard Kipling

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He is chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India and his tales for children. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old. Kipling is best known for his works of fiction, including The Jungle Book (a collection of stories which includes "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi"), Just So Stories (1902), Kim (1901) (a tale of adventure), many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888); and his poems, including "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is regarded as a major "innovator in the art of the short story"; his children's books are enduring classics of children's literature; and his best works are said to exhibit "a versatile and luminous narrative gift".

Rupert Sargent Holland

Rupert Sargent Holland (1878-1952) was an American author. His works include: Historic Boyhoods (1909), The Boy Scouts of Birchbark Island (1911), The Boy Scouts of Snowshoe Lodge (1915) and King Arthur and The Knights of the Round Table. "A privateer was leaving Genoa on a certain June morning in 1461, and crowds of people had gathered on the quays to see the ship sail. Dark-hued men from the distant shores of Africa, clad in brilliant red and yellow and blue blouses or tunics and hose, with dozens of glittering gilded chains about their necks, and rings in their ears, jostled sun-browned sailors and merchants from the east, and the fairer-skinned men and women of the north."

S. J. Barnett

S. J. BARNETT was Professor of Physics in the STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Samed Behrengi

Samed Behrengi (Fars, Azerbaycan: Səməd Behrəngi; 1939; Tebriz, İran Şahlığı; ö. 31 Ağustos, 1967; Aras Nehri) Azeri asıllı İranlı öğretmen ve çocuk hikâyeleri ile halk masalları yazarı-derleyicisidir. Hayatı: Babasının adı İzzet, annesinin adı Sara idi. İran genelinde seyahatler ile Fars ve Azeri halk kültürü üzerine incelemeler yaptı. Halkın dilinde dolaşan masalları, söylenceleri derledi, yorumladı, yeniden yazdı. Bunları derlemenin yanı sıra, çocuk öyküleri yazdı. Ne var ki kimilerince çocuk öyküleri olarak görülen bu yapıtlar kimilerince de İran ve diğer dünya halklarına, adalet, eşitlik, dogmayı sorgulama, direnebilme gibi öğütlerde bulunan metinlerdir. Zamanının Şah yönetimine karşı masal ve hikâyeler yazarak karşı koymaya çalışmış, başkaldırmıştır. Samed Behrengi öğretmen okulunda okumuştur. Öğrenimini tamamladıktan sonra köy okullarında öğretmenliğe başlamıştır. Kısa hayatı boyunca her zaman çocuklara hayatı anlatmaya çalışmış ve öğret-menlik görevinde kalmıştır. Samed Behrengi (1967) 28 yaşındayken şüphe uyandıran bir biçimde Aras Nehri'nde ölmüştür. Yüzerken boğulduğu söylentisi yayılsa da buna kimse inanmadı, çünkü Behrengi, yazdığı masallarla, ülkesinin başına çöreklenmiş Şahlık düzenini açıkça eleştiriyor, her türlü baskı yönetimine karşı çıkıyordu. Bu yüzden suikasta uğradığı düşünülmektedir. Yapıtları onlarca dile çevrilmiştir. Yapıtları: • Bir Vardı Bir Yoktu • Bir Şeftali Bin Şeftali • Küçük Kara Balık (Bu Eser) • Yıldız ve konuşan Bebek • Yıldız'ın Kargaları • Pancarcı Çocuk • Kel Güvercinci • Ulduz ve Kargalar • Bir Günlük Düş ve Gerçek • Köroğlu Geliyor • Püsküllü Deve • Sevgi Masalı • Bir Aşk Masalı • Ah Masalı • İnatçı kediler • Beyaz diş

Samuel Butler

Samuel Butler (1835 – 1902) was an iconoclastic English author of a variety of works. Two of his most famous works are the Utopian satire Erewhon and the semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh, published posthumously. He is also known for examining Christian orthodoxy, substantive studies of evolutionary thought, studies of Italian art, and works of literary history and criticism. Butler made prose translations of the Iliad and Odyssey that remain in use to this day. Butler was born on 1835 at the rectory in the village of Langar, near Bingham, Nottinghamshire, England, to the Rev. Thomas Butler, son of Dr. Samuel Butler, then headmaster of Shrewsbury School and later Bishop of Lichfield. Dr. Butler was the son of a tradesman and descended from a line of yeomen, but his scholarly aptitude being recognised at young age, was sent to Rugby and Cambridge, where he distinguished himself and launched his successful career. His only son Thomas wished to go into the Navy, but succumbed to paternal pressure and entered the Church, in which he led a wholly undistinguished career, all the more so in contrast with his father's. It has been suggested that this family dynamic had some impact on Samuel, insofar as it created the oppressive home environment (chronicled in The Way of All Flesh) which formed his approach to the world. Thomas Butler, states one critic, "to make up for having been a servile son, became a bullying father." In any event, Samuel Butler's relationship with his parents, and especially with his father, was largely antagonistic. His education began at home and included frequent beatings, as was not uncommon at the time. Samuel, however, found his parents particularly "brutal and stupid by nature," and their relationship to him never progressed beyond the adversarial. He later recorded of his father that, "He never liked me, nor I him; from my earliest recollections I can call to mind no time when I did not fear him and dislike him.... I have never passed a day without thinking of him many times over as the man who was sure to be against me." Under his parents' influence, he was set on course to follow his father into the priesthood. He was sent to Shrewsbury at the age of twelve (where he did not enjoy the hard life under its then headmaster, Benjamin Hall Kennedy, whom he later drew as "Dr Skinner" in The Way of All Flesh). Then in 1854 he went up to St John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained a first in Classics in 1858[4] (the graduate society of St John's is named the Samuel Butler Room in his honour).

Sarah K. Bolton

About the Author Sarah Knowles Bolton (1841 – 1916) was an American writer. She was born in Farmington, Connecticut, to parents John Segar Knowles and Mary Elizabeth Miller Knowles. At age 11 she met the writer Harriet Beecher Stowe. In 1866 she married Charles E. Bolton, a merchant and philanthropist. In 1872 her son, Charles Knowles Bolton was born. She wrote extensively for the press, was one of the first corresponding secretaries of the Woman's national temperance union, was associate editor of the Boston "Congregationalist" (1878-81), and traveled for two years in Europe, studying profit-sharing, female higher education, and other social questions. Her writings encourage readers to improve the world about them through faith and hard work. She died in Cleveland, Ohio.

Sezai Topal

SEZAI TOPAL, Having been born in Kahramanmaraş, He spent his childhood and youth in K. Maraş, Adıyaman, Adana, Ankara and Mersin. He graduated from the Department of Teaching Philosophy in Çukurova University in 1998. He worked in vari-ous schools as a teacher. Currently, he works as a teacher in Mehmet Serttaş Anatolian High School. He has been doing his masters' degree in the department of Psychology in Toros Uni-versity. He is interested in the psychology of childhood and adolescent, early adulthood problems and the problem of lone-liness of people in our era.

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (Born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881, and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital. He was appointed a university lecturer in neuropathology in 1885 and became a professor in 1902. In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association (in which patients report their thoughts without reservation and in whichever order they spontaneously occur) and discovered transference (the process in which patients displace on to their analysts feelings derived from their childhood attachments), establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of his own and his patients' dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud drew on psychoanalytic theory to develop a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Silvanus P. Thompson

Silvanus Phillips Thompson (1851 – 1916) was a professor of physics at the City and Guilds Technical College in Finsbury, England. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1891 and was known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author. Thompson's most enduring publication is his 1910 text Calculus Made Easy, which teaches the fundamentals of infinitesimal calculus, and is still in print. Thompson also wrote a popular physics text, Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism, as well as biographies of Lord Kelvin and Michael Faraday. In 11 February 1876 he heard Sir William Crookes give an evening discourse at the Royal Institution on The Mechanical Action of Light when Crookes demonstrated his light mill or radiometer. Thompson was intrigued and stimulated and developed a major interest in light and optics (his other main interest being electromagnetism). In 1876 he was appointed as a lecturer in Physics at University College, Bristol, and later was made Professor in 1878 at the age of 27. Silvanus Thompson, at about the age of 25. A major concern of Thompson was the area of technical education and he made a series of continental tours to France, Germany and Switzerland to compare the continental approach to that in the UK. In 1879 he gave a paper at the Royal Society of Arts on Apprenticeship, Scientific and Unscientific in which he detailed the deficiencies in technical education in England. In the discussion, the opinion was expressed that England was too conservative to make use of trade schools and that continental methods would not be applicable in the UK. Thompson recognised that technical education was the means by which scientific knowledge could be put into action and spent the rest of his life putting his vision into practical realisation. In 1878 the City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of Technical Education was founded. Finsbury Technical College was a teaching institution created by the City and Guilds Institute and it was as its Principal and Professor of Physics that Thompson was to devote the next 30 years. Thompson's particular gift was in his ability to communicate difficult scientific concepts in a clear and interesting manner. He attended and lectured at the Royal Institution giving the Christmas lectures in 1896 on Light, Visible and Invisible with an account of Rontgen Light.

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, (1882 – 1944) was a British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics. He was also a philosopher of science and a popularizer of science. The Eddington limit, the natural limit to the luminosity of stars, or the radiation generated by accretion onto a compact object, is named in his honour. He is famous for his work regarding the theory of relativity. Eddington wrote a number of articles that announced and explained Einstein's theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. World War I severed many lines of scientific communication and new developments in German science were not well known in England. He also conducted an expedition to observe the Solar eclipse of 29 May 1919 that provided one of the earliest confirmations of relativity, and he became known for his popular expositions and interpretations of the theory. He died from cancer in the Evelyn Nursing Home, Cambridge, on 22 November 1944 and was cremated at Cambridge Crematorium (Cambridgeshire) on 27 November 1944 and his cremated remains were buried in the grave of his mother at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge. Eddington was born in Kendal, Westmorland, England, the son of Quaker parents, Arthur Henry Eddington and Sarah Ann Shout. His father taught at a Quaker training college in Lancashire before moving to Kendal to become headmaster of Stramongate School. He died in the typhoid epidemic which swept England in 1884. His mother was left to bring up her two children with relatively little income. The family moved to Weston-super-Mare where at first Stanley (as his mother and sister always called Eddington) was educated at home before spending three years at a preparatory school. In 1893 Stanley entered Brynmelyn School. He proved to be a most capable scholar, particularly in mathematics and English literature. His performance earned him a scholarship to Owens College, Manchester (what was later to become the University of Manchester) in 1898, which he was able to attend, having turned 16 that year. He spent the first year in a general course, but turned to physics for the next three years. Eddington was greatly influenced by his physics and mathematics teachers, Arthur Schuster and Horace Lamb. At Manchester, Eddington lived at Dalton Hall, where he came under the lasting influence of the Quaker mathematician J. W. Graham.

Stephen Crane

For other people named Stephen Crane, see Stephen Crane (disambiguation). Formal portrait of Stephen Crane taken in Washington, D.C., about March 1896 Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 – June 5, 1900) was an American author. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism. He is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation. The eighth surviving child of Methodist Protestant parents, Crane began writing at the age of four and had published several articles by the age of 16. Having little interest in university studies, he left school in 1891 to work as a reporter and writer. Crane's first novel was the 1893 Bowery tale Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, generally considered by critics to be the first work of American literary Naturalism. He won international acclaim in 1895 for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage, which he wrote without any battle experience.

T. S. Eliot

Thomas Stearns Eliot OM (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965) was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic and "one of the twentieth century's major poets." He was born in St. Louis, Missouri to an old Yankee family. However he emigrated to England in 1914 (at age 25) and was naturalised as a British subject in 1927 at age 39. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915), which is seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement. It was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land (1922), The Hollow Men (1925), Ash Wednesday (1930) and Four Quartets (1945). He is also known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral (1935). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry."

Theodora Ozaki

Yei Theodora Ozaki (英子セオドラ尾崎 Eiko Seodora Ozaki?, 1871 – December 28, 1932) was an early 20th-century translator of Japanese short stories and fairy tales. Her translations were fairly liberal but have been popular, and were reprinted several times after her death. According to "A Biographical Sketch" by Mrs. Hugh Fraser, included in the introductory material to Warriors of old Japan, and other stories, Ozaki came from an unusual background. She was the daughter of Baron Ozaki, one of the first Japanese men to study in the West, and Bathia Catherine Morrison, daughter of William Morrison, one of their teachers. Her parents separated after five years of marriage, and her mother retained custody of their three daughters until they became teenagers. At that time, Yei was sent to live in Japan with her father, which she enjoyed. Later she refused an arranged marriage, left her father's house, and became a teacher and secretary to earn money. Over the years, she traveled back and forth between Japan and Europe, as her employment and family duties took her, and lived in places as diverse as Italy and the drafty upper floor of a Buddhist temple.

Theodore Dreiser

Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (1871 – 1945) was an American novelist and journalist of the naturalist school. His novels often featured main characters who succeeded at their objectives despite a lack of a firm moral code, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency. Dreiser's best known novels include Sister Carrie (1900) and An American Tragedy (1925). In 1930 he was nominated to the Nobel Prize in Literature. Dreiser was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, to Sarah Maria (née Schanab) and John Paul Dreiser. John Dreiser was a German immigrant from Mayen in the Eifel region, and Sarah was from the Mennonite farming community near Dayton, Ohio. Her family disowned her for converting to Roman Catholicism in order to marry John Dreiser. Theodore was the twelfth of thirteen children (the ninth of the ten surviving). Paul Dresser (1857–1906) was one of his older brothers; Paul changed the spelling of his name as he became a popular songwriter. They were reared as Catholics. After graduating from high school in Warsaw, Indiana, Dreiser attended Indiana University in the years 1889–1890 before dropping out. Writing career: Within several years, Dreiser was writing as a journalist for the Chicago Globe newspaper and then the St. Louis Globe-Democrat. He wrote several articles on writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, William Dean Howells, Israel Zangwill, John Burroughs, and interviewed public figures such as Andrew Carnegie, Marshall Field, Thomas Edison, and Theodore Thomas. Other interviewees included Lillian Nordica, Emilia E. Barr, Philip Armour and Alfred Stieglitz.

Thomas Burke

THOMAS BURKE (1886 – 1945) was a British author. He was born in Eltham, London (back then still part of Kent). His first successful publication was Limehouse Nights (1916), a collection of stories centred on life in the poverty-stricken Limehouse district of London. Many of Burke's books feature the Chinese character Quong Lee as narrator.

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. Hobbes was a champion of absolutism for the sovereign, but he also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. He was one of the founders of modern political philosophy. His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy.

Thomas Kyd

Thomas Kyd (1558; 1594) was an English playwright, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. Although well known in his own time, Kyd fell into obscurity until 1773 when Thomas Hawkins, an early editor of The Spanish Tragedy, discovered that Kyd was named as its author by Thomas Heywood in his Apologie for Actors (1612). A hundred years later, scholars in Germany and England began to shed light on his life and work, including the controversial finding that he may have been the author of a Hamlet play pre-dating Shakespeare's, which is now known as the Ur-Hamlet. Thomas Kyd was the son of Francis and Anna Kyd and was baptised in the church of St Mary Woolnoth in the Ward of Langborn, Lombard Street, London on 6 November 1558. The baptismal register at St Mary Woolnoth carries this entry: "Thomas, son of Francis Kydd, Citizen and Writer of the Courte Letter of London". Francis Kydd was a scrivener and in 1580 was warden of the Scriveners' Company. In October 1565 the young Kyd was enrolled in the newly founded Merchant Taylors' School, whose headmaster was Richard Mulcaster. Fellow students included Edmund Spenser and Thomas Lodge. Here, Kyd received a well-rounded education, thanks to Mulcaster's progressive ideas. Apart from Latin and Greek, the curriculum included music, drama, physical education, and "good manners". There is no evidence that Kyd went on to university. He may have followed in his father's professional footsteps because there are two letters written by him and his writing style is similar to that of a scrivener.

Thomas Malthus

He (Thomas) Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was a British cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert. Malthus became widely known for his theories about change in population. His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As a cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour. Malthus wrote: That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence, That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and, That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice. Malthus placed the longer-term stability of the economy above short-term expediency. He criticised the Poor Laws, and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat. His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. He remains a much-debated writer.

Thomas Moore

Thomas Moore (1779 – 1852) was an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of The Minstrel Boy and The Last Rose of Summer. He was responsible, with John Murray, for burning Lord Byron's memoirs after his death. In his lifetime he was often referred to as Anacreon Moore. Thomas Moore was born at 12 Aungier Street in Dublin, Ireland. over his father's grocery shop, his father being from the Kerry Gaeltacht and his mother, Anastasia Codd, from Wexford. He had two younger sisters, Kate and Ellen. From a relatively early age Moore showed an interest in music and other performing arts. He sometimes appeared in musical plays with his friends, such as The Poor Soldier by John O'Keeffe (music by William Shield), and at one point had ambitions to become an actor. Moore attended several Dublin schools including Samuel Whyte's English Grammar School in Grafton Street where he learned the English accent with which he spoke for the rest of his life. In 1795 he graduated from Trinity College, which had recently allowed entry to Catholic students, in an effort to fulfill his mother's dream of him becoming a lawyer. Moore was initially a good student, but he later put less effort into his studies. His time at Trinity came amidst the ongoing turmoil following the French Revolution, and a number of his fellow students such as Robert Emmett were supporters of the United Irishmen movement, although Moore himself never was a member. This movement sought support from the French government to launch a revolution in Ireland. In 1798 a rebellion broke out followed by a French invasion, neither of which succeeded. Besides Emmet, another formative influence was Edward Hudson, also a fellow student at Trinity College, who played a crucial role in introducing Moore to Edward Bunting's A General Collection of the Ancient Irish Music (1797), later one the main sources of his own collection of Irish Melodies.

Thomas Roger Smith

Thomas Roger Smith (1830–1903) was an English architect and academic. He is now best known for his views and writings on public buildings, in terms of their style and acoustics, and their influence on other architects, particularly in relation to British imperial architecture. His own building designs are not considered distinguished. Born at Sheffield on 14 July 1830, he was the only son of the Rev. Thomas Smith of Sheffield by his wife Louisa Thomas of Chelsea. After private education he entered the office of Philip Hardwick; and spent a year and a half in travel before beginning independent practice as an architect in 1855. Arthur John Gale was in partnership with him until 1891, and from 1888 his son, Ravenscroft Elsey Smith. His office was at Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, E.C., London. An employee was the novelist Thomas Hardy, for a few months in 1872 as he was struggling to establish himself as a writer. Smith lectured on architecture and became in 1851 a member of the Architectural Association, of which he was president in 1860–1 and again in 1863–4. At the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) he was elected an associate in 1856, in 1863 a fellow, and was for several sessions a member of its council. In 1869 he was a founding editor of The Architect. Smith became chairman in 1899 of the statutory board of examiners (under the London Building Acts) which the institute appointed. In 1874 he was made district surveyor under the Metropolitan Board of Works for Southwark and North Lambeth, and was transferred in 1882 to the district of West Wandsworth. Smith's other official appointments were numerous. At the Carpenters' Company, he attained in 1901 the office of master. He was an examiner in architecture to the Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, as well as to the City and Guilds Institute. From 1880 to his death, Smith was Professorship of Architecture at University College, London, which he held from 1880 to his death. He was brought in on questions of rights of light, and as an architectural assessor in competitions. Seriously lame for many years, Smith worked on until the end of 1902. He died on 11 March 1903 at his residence, Gordon Street, Gordon Square, London.

Thomas Wright

Thomas Wright (1810 – 1877) was an English antiquarian and writer. Wright was born near Ludlow, Shropshire, descended from a Quaker family formerly living at Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire. He was educated at Ludlow Grammar School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1834. While at Cambridge he contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine and other periodicals, and in 1835 he came to London to devote himself to a literary career. His first separate work was Early English Poetry in Black Letter, with Prefaces and Notes (1836, 4 vols. 12mo), which was followed during the next forty years by an extensive series of publications, many of lasting value. He helped to found the British Archaeological Association and the Percy Society, the Camden and the Shakespeare Society. In 1842 he was elected corresponding member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres of Paris, and was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries as well as member of many other learned British and foreign bodies. In 1859 he superintended the excavations of the Roman town of Viroconium Cornoviorum (Wroxeter), near Shrewsbury, and issued a report. A portrait of him is in the Drawing Room Portrait Gallery for 1 October 1859. He was a great scholar, but will be chiefly remembered as an industrious antiquary and the editor of many relics of the Middle Ages. He died at Chelsea, London in his 67th year. He is buried in Brompton Cemetery.


Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576) known in English as Titian was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto), in the Republic of Venice. During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars" (recalling the famous final line of Dante's Paradiso), Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.

Tomas De Iriarte

Tomás de Iriarte (or Yriarte) y Oropesa (Puerto de la Cruz, La Orotava, island of Tenerife, 1750 — Madrid, 1791), was a Spanish neoclassical poet. Tomás was born to the Iriarte family, many of whose members were writers in the humanist tradition. His father was Don Bernardo de Iriarte, (1735 Puerto dela Cruz - Bordeaux, France, in exile, 1814) while his mother was Doña Bárbara de las Nieves Hernández de Oropesa. He received his literary education at Madrid where he went aged 14 in 1764 under the care of his uncle, Juan de Iriarte, librarian to the king of Spain. In his eighteenth year the nephew began his literary career by translating French plays for the royal theatre, and in 1770, under the anagram of Tirso Imarete, he published an original comedy entitled Hacer que hacemos. In the following year he became official translator at the foreign office, and in 1776 keeper of the records in the war department. In 1780 he authored a didactic poem in cilvas entitled La Música, which attracted some attention in Italy as well as at home. The Fábulas literarias (1782), with which his name is most intimately associated, are composed in a great variety of metres, and was known for humorous attacks on literary men and methods, as was the case, again and again, with Juan Pablo Forner (1756–1797). During his later years, partly in consequence of the Fábulas, Iriarte was absorbed in personal controversies, and in 1786 was reported to the Inquisition for his sympathies with the French philosophers. He died of gout at Madrid, 17 September 1791, aged only 41. He is the subject of an exhaustive monograph (1897) by Emilio Cotarelo y Mori, (Vegadeo, 1 May 1857 – Madrid, 27 January 1936), member of the Royal Spanish Academy, just that year.

Ummuhan Yaşar

Yazar, 01.06.1977 tarihinde doğdu. Ankara Üniversitesi, Eğitim Psikolojisi Hizmetleri (EPH) bölümünü kazanıp, yatay geçiş yaparak OMÜ Psikolojik Danışmanlık & Rehberlik (PDR) Bölümünden 2001 yılında mezun oldu. 2001 yılından bu yana, Milli eğitim bakanlığına bağlı çeşitli okullarda il il görev yaptı. En son ve halen, Bodrum'da görev yapmaktadır.. “Kayıp Halkanın Sırrı” isimli ilk eserini 2013 yılında kaleme aldı..


Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter who was the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period, important as a portrait artist. In addition to numerous renditions of scenes of historical and cultural significance, he painted scores of portraits of the Spanish royal family, other notable European figures, and commoners, culminating in the production of his masterpiece Las Meninas (1656).

Vicente Blasco Ibanez

Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867 – 1928) was a journalist, politician and best-selling Spanish novelist in various genres whose most widespread and lasting fame in the English-speaking world is from Hollywood films adapted from his works. He was born in Valencia. At university, he studied law and graduated in 1888 but never went into practice. He was more interested in politics, journalism, literature and women. He was a particular fan of Miguel de Cervantes. In politics he was a militant Republican partisan in his youth and founded a newspaper, El Pueblo (translated as The People) in his hometown. The newspaper aroused so much controversy that it was taken to court many times. In 1896, he was arrested and sentenced to a few months in prison. He made many enemies and was shot and almost killed in one dispute. The bullet was caught in the clasp of his belt. He had several stormy love affairs. He volunteered as the proofreader for the novel Noli Me Tangere, in which the Filipino patriot José Rizal expressed his contempt of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. He travelled to Argentina in 1909 where two new cities, Nueva Valencia and Cervantes, were created. He gave conferences on historical events and Spanish literature. Tired and disgusted with government failures and inaction, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez moved to Paris at the beginning of World War I. When living in Paris, Ibáñez had been introduced to the poet and writer Robert W. Service by their mutual publisher Fisher Unwin, who asked Robert W. Service to act as an interpreter in the deal of a contract concerning Ibáñez. He was a supporter of the Allies in World War I. He died in Menton, France in 1928, the day before his 61st birthday, in the residence of Fontana Rosa (also named the House of Writers, dedicated to Miguel de Cervantes, Charles Dickens and Honoré de Balzac) that he built.

Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (French pronunciation: ​[viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo]; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. He is considered one of the greatest and best known French writers. In France, Hugo's literary fame comes first from his poetry but also rests upon his novels and his dramatic achievements. Among many volumes of poetry, Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles stand particularly high in critical esteem. Outside France, his best-known works are the acclaimed novels Les Misérables, 1862, and Notre-Dame de Paris, 1831 (known in English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). He also produced more than 4,000 drawings, which have since been acclaimed for their beauty, and earned widespread respect as a campaigner for social causes such as the abolition of the death penalty.

Victoria Mary Sackville-West

Victoria Mary Sackville-West, (1892 – 1962), usually known as Vita Sackville-West, was an English poet, novelist, and garden designer. A successful and prolific novelist, poet, and journalist during her lifetime—she was twice awarded the Hawthornden Prize for Imaginative Literature: in 1927 for her pastoral epic, The Land, and in 1933 for her Collected Poems—today she is chiefly remembered for the celebrated garden at Sissinghurst she created with her diplomat husband, Sir Harold Nicolson. She is also remembered as the inspiration for the androgynous protagonist of the historical romp, Orlando: A Biography by her famous friend and admirer, Virginia Woolf, with whom she had a brief affair. Sackville-West was a writer and author of novels. The Edwardians (1930) and All Passion Spent (1931) are perhaps her best-known novels today. In the latter, the elderly Lady Slane courageously embraces a long suppressed sense of freedom and whimsy after a lifetime of convention. This novel was dramatized by the BBC in 1986 starring Dame Wendy Hiller. Her science-fantasy Grand Canyon (1942) is a "cautionary tale" (as she termed it) about a Nazi invasion of an unprepared United States. The book takes an unsuspected twist, however, that makes it something more than a typical invasion yarn. In 1947 Sackville-West was made a Companion of Honour for her services to literature. The same year she began a weekly column in The Observer called "In your Garden". In 1948 she became a founder member of the National Trust's garden committee. She is less well known as a biographer. The most famous of those works is her biography of Saint Joan of Arc in the work of the same name. Additionally, she composed a dual biography of Saint Teresa of Ávila and Thérèse of Lisieux entitled The Eagle and the Dove, a biography of the author Aphra Behn, and a biography of her maternal grandmother, the Spanish dancer known as Pepita. Sackville-West's long narrative poem, The Land, won the Hawthornden Prize in 1927. She won it again, becoming the only writer to do so, in 1933 with her Collected Poems.


Publius Vergilius Maro (70 BC – 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil /ˈvɜrdʒəl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from the time of its composition to the present day. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and arrive on the shores of Italy—in Roman mythology the founding act of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably the Divine Comedy of Dante, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through hell and purgatory. Birth and biographical tradition: Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, which was incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry. Although the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from his poetry and allegorizing; thus, Virgil's biographical tradition remains problematic. The tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Scholars suggest Etruscan, Umbrian or even Celtic descent by examining the linguistic or ethnic markers of the region. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his later biographers. Macrobius says that Virgil's father was of a humble background; however, scholars generally believe that Virgil was from an equestrian landowning family which could afford to give him an education. He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum, Rome and Naples. After considering briefly a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry.

Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (1882 – 1941) was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a central figure in the influential Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929), with its famous dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf suffered from severe bouts of mental illness throughout her life, thought to have been the result of what is now termed bipolar disorder, and committed suicide by drowning in 1941 at the age of 59.


François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (pronounced: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day. Biography François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children (three of whom survived) of François Arouet (1650 – 1 January 1722), a lawyer who was a minor treasury official, and his wife, Marie Marguerite d'Aumart (ca. 1660 – 13 July 1701), from a noble family of the province of Poitou. Some speculation surrounds his date of birth, which Voltaire always claimed to be 20 February 1694. Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704–1711), where he learned Latin and Greek; later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish and English. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Caen, Normandy. Nevertheless, he continued to write, producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. His father then obtained a job for him as a secretary to the French ambassador in the Netherlands, where Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their scandalous elopement was foiled by Voltaire's father and he was forced to return to France. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for even mild critiques of the government and religious intolerance. These activities were to result in numerous imprisonments and exiles. One satirical verse about the Régent led to his imprisonment in the Bastille for eleven months. While there, he wrote his debut play, Œdipe. Its success established his reputation.

Wilhelm Grimm

Wilhelm Grimm or The Brothers Grimm, Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859), were born in Hanau, near Frankfurt, in the German state of Hesse. Throughout their lives they remained close friends, and both studied law at Marburg University. Jacob was a pioneer in the study of German philology, and although Wilhelm's work was hampered by poor health the brothers collaborated in the creation of a German dictionary, not completed until a century after their deaths. But they were best (and universally) known for the collection of over two hundred folk tales they made from oral sources and published in two volumes of 'Nursery and Household Tales' in 1812 and 1814. Although their intention was to preserve such material as part of German cultural and literary history, and their collection was first published with scholarly notes and no illustration, the tales soon came into the possession of young readers. This was in part due to Edgar Taylor, who made the first English translation in 1823, selecting about fifty stories 'with the amusement of some young friends principally in view.' They have been an essential ingredient of children's reading ever since.

William Blake

William Blake (1757 – 1827) was an English painter, poet and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His prophetic poetry has been said to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language". His visual artistry led one contemporary art critic to proclaim him "far and away the greatest artist Britain has ever produced".[3] In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Although he lived in London his entire life (except for three years spent in Felpham), he produced a diverse and symbolically rich oeuvre, which embraced the imagination as "the body of God"or "human existence itself". Although Blake was considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, he is held in high regard by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work. His paintings and poetry have been characterised as part of the Romantic movement and as "Pre-Romantic". Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the Church of England (indeed, to all forms of organised religion), Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American Revolutions. Though later he rejected many of these political beliefs, he maintained an amiable relationship with the political activist Thomas Paine; he was also influenced by thinkers such as Emanuel Swedenborg. Despite these known influences, the singularity of Blake's work makes him difficult to classify. The 19th-century scholar William Rossetti characterised him as a "glorious luminary", and "a man not forestalled by predecessors, nor to be classed with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known or readily surmisable successors".

William E. Channing

William Ellery Channing (1780 – 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and along with Andrews Norton, (1786-1853), one of Unitarianism's leading theologians. He was known for his articulate and impassioned sermons and public speeches, and as a prominent thinker in the liberal theology of the day. Channing's religion and thought were among the chief influences on the New England Transcendentalists, though he never countenanced their views, which he saw as extreme. The beliefs he espoused, especially within his "Baltimore Sermon" of May 5, 1819, at the ordination of a future famous theologian and educator in his own right, Jared Sparks, (1789-1866), as the first minister (1819-1823) of the newly organized (1817) "First Independent Church of Baltimore" (later the "First Unitarian Church of Baltimore (Unitarian and Universalist)"). Here he espoused his principles and tenets of the developing philosophy and theology of "Unitarianism" resulted in the organization later in 1825 of the first Unitarian denomination in America (American Unitarian Association) and the later developments and mergers between Unitarians and Universalists resulting finally in the Unitarian Universalist Association of America in 1961. In later years Channing addressed the topic of slavery, although he was never an ardent abolitionist. Channing wrote a book in 1835, entitled, "SLAVERY" James Munroe and Company, publisher. Channing, however, has been described as a "romantic racist" in "Black Abolitionism: A Quest for Human Dignity" by Beverly Eileen Mitchell (133–38). He held a common American belief about the inferiority of African people and slaves and held a belief that once freed, Africans would need overseers. The overseers (largely former slave masters) were necessary because the slaves would lapse into laziness. Furthermore, he did not join the abolitionist movement because he did not agree with their way of conducting themselves, and he felt that voluntary associations limited a person's autonomy. Therefore, he often chose to remain separate from organizations and reform movements. This middle position characterized his attitude about most questions, although his eloquence and strong influence on the religious world incurred the enmity of many extremists. Channing had an enormous influence over the religious (and social) life of New England, and America, in the nineteenth century.

William Holden Hutton

William Holden Hutton (1860 – 1930) was a British historian and a presbyter of the Church of England. He was Dean of Winchester Cathedral from 1919 to 1930. William Holden Hutton was born in Britain on 24 May 1860, in Lincolnshire, where his father was rector of Gate Burton. He studied at [[Magdalen College, Oxford]], where he graduated with a first class degree in modern history in 1881. He was a Fellow at St John's College, Oxford, from 1884 to 1923, and an honorary Fellow thereafter; and from 1889 to 1909 was a tutor at the College. in 1903 he delivered the Bampton lectures. Between 1895 and 1897 he also lectured on Church history at Cambridge University. During this period he had a house at Burford; and he wrote about Burford and the Cotswolds in some of his books. In 1911 at the prompting of bishop Carr Glyn of Peterborough he began serving as Archdeacon of Northampton, and Canon Residentiary of Peterborough Cathedral. During this period he revisited Oxford as a University reader in Indian history. He found that the climate at Peterborough was not good for his health. From 1919 he accepted the deanery of Winchester cathedral, with a house suitable for his large library. His continuing ill-health did not prevent him from being a ready host. He was also a generous helper to the young. He wrote several historical works, chiefly on the Church in Britain, and was also a copious reviewer. He also authored the biography of Richard Wellesley (1893) for the Rulers of India series.

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564) – 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, the authorship of some of which is uncertain. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.

William Thompson Sedgwick

William Thompson Sedgwick (1855–1921) was a teacher, epidemiologist, bacteriologist, and a key figure in shaping public health in the United States. He was president of many scientific and professional organizations during his lifetime including president of the American Public Health Association in 1915. He was one of three founders of the joint MIT-Harvard School of Public Health in 1913. In 1883, Sedgwick was appointed to the faculty at MIT. He was promoted to associate professor in 1884 and to full professor in 1891. He became head of what ultimately became known as the Department of Biology at MIT. In 1888, Sedgwick began giving lectures in bacteriology to students in the civil engineering curriculum. His students became the spokesmen and practitioners who brought the principles of public health into the practice of engineering beginning in the 1890s and lasting well into the 20th century. While he has been hailed as the first scientific American epidemiologist, Sedgwick was also described as not having a mathematical mind. He taught ideas and principles to his students. He instilled in his students the need to develop three basic behaviors: a vision of the subject in relation to the broader world, an honest method of working to seek the truth and an enthusiasm for service to the profession the public. In 1902, he published the groundbreaking book, Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health, which was a compilation of his lectures from the courses he taught at MIT and a distillation of his experience working in the field. Sedgwick influenced many practitioners in the field of public health. He played a key role in Samuel Cate Prescott's choice to go into bacteriology as a career, and was instrumental in Prescott's selection in the canning research with William Lyman Underwood in 1895–6 that would lead to the growth of food technology.

Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856 – 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his early years in Augusta, Georgia and Columbia, South Carolina. Wilson earned a PhD in political science at Johns Hopkins University, and served as a professor and scholar at various institutions before being chosen as President of Princeton University, a position he held from 1902 to 1910. In the election of 1910, he was the gubernatorial candidate of New Jersey's Democratic Party, and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, serving from 1911 to 1913. Running for president in 1912, Wilson benefited from a split in the Republican Party, which enabled his plurality of just over forty percent to win him a large electoral college margin. He was the first Southerner elected as president since Zachary Taylor in 1848, and Wilson was a leading force in the Progressive Movement, bolstered by his Democratic Party's winning control of both the White House and Congress in 1912. In office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress, now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. Included among these were the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Farm Loan Act. Having taken office one month after ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, Wilson called a special session of Congress, whose work culminated in the Revenue Act of 1913, reintroducing an income tax and lowering tariffs. Through passage of the Adamson Act, imposing an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, while pursuing a more aggressive policy in dealing with Mexico's civil war.

Yeşim Büyük Adıgüzel

Yeşim Büyükadıgüzel was born in Lüleburgaz county of Kırklareli on November 26, 1982. She completed her primary and high school educations in Kırklareli. She won geography department of Balıkesir University faculty of science and letters in 2001. She joined to Best Model of Turkey 2007 modeling contest in 2007 and was chosen “My Best Friend Ship”. Yeşim wrote short movie scripts in the years, which she was studying in university and she has still kept them. After she graduated from the university in 2008, she worked as a geography teacher in high schools connected to ministry of national education. Yeşim Büyükadıgüzel, who has work as a geography teacher for approximately 4 years, has been writing the suite of her novel named You are mine 2015, she has written first time, at her home now.."

Yunus Emre

He is neither, but at the same time both. Yunus Emre was a thirteenth century dervish from Anatolia. He is obsessed with love, but his love is the love of a true mystic. He did wear torn clothing, a dervish robe, and wandered about in Anatolia. He was but one of the thousands of Sufi dervishes of Islam, but he played an outstanding role in Turkish culture, literature and philosophy. Some writers regard him as the most important poet in Turkish history; his poetry, language and philosophy shaped Turkish culture and still do so.

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