Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe.More info →
The theory of relativity is intimately connected with the theory of space and time. I shall therefore begin with a brief investigation of the origin of our ideas of space and time, although in doing so I know that I introduce a controversial subject. The object of all science, whether natural science or psychology, is to co-ordinate our experiences and to bring them into a logical system. How are our customary ideas of space and time related to the character of our experiences?
The experiences of an individual appear to us arranged in a series of events; in this series the single events which we remember appear to be ordered according to the criterion of “earlier” and “later”, which cannot be analysed further.More info →
Either analytic knowledge or synthetic knowledge of nature would be wholly void of meaning were it to be completely wrenched from the other.
Most men of science perhaps, and most philosophers probably, would admit that this is true as an abstract proposition. But what about its truth when brought to the test of particular cases ?More info →
This is illustrated Eccentricities of the Animal Creation ..
CURIOUS creatures of Animal Life have been objects of interest to mankind in all ages and countries; the universality of which may be traced to that feeling which "makes the whole world kin."
It has been remarked with emphatic truth by a popular writer, that "we have in the Bible and in the engraven and pictorial records the earliest evidence of the attention paid to Natural History in general. The 'navy of Tarshish' contributed to the wisdom of him who not only 'spake of the trees from the cedar of Lebanon, even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall,' but 'also of beasts, and of fowls, and of creeping things, and of fishes,' to say nothing of numerous other passages showing the progress that zoological knowledge had already made. The Egyptian records bear testimony to a familiarity not only with the forms of a multitude of wild animals, but with their habits and geographical distribution."
THIS little Hand-book is intended to supply manufacturing chemists, dyers, drysalters, druggists, brokers, and all persons interested in the chemical arts, with directions for the assay and valuation of those articles of commerce which come into their hands. For this purpose the best and simplest methods have been selected, and stated, it is hoped, with the needful clearness.More info →
Plato (428/427-348/347 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and mathematician of the Classic Age who founded the Academy of Athens. Noted as a student of Socrates, Plato has distinguished himself as one of the founders of Western philosophy by recording the teachings of his master and his own philosophies in 35 dialogues and 13 letters.More info →
This book is intended essentially as an "Introduction" and does not aim at giving an exhaustive discussion of the problems with which it deals. It seemed desirable to set forth certain results, hitherto only available to those who have mastered logical symbolism, in a form offering the minimum of difficulty to the beginner. The utmost endeavour has been made to avoid dogmatism on such questions as are still open to serious doubt, and this endeavour has to some extent dominated the choice of topics considered.
The beginnings of mathematical logic are less deffinitely known than its later portions, but are of at leastequal philosophical interest. Much of what is set forth in the following chapters is not properly to be called "philosophy" though the matters concerned were included in philosophy so long as no satisfactory science of them existed.
The nature of infinity and continuity, for example, belonged in former days to philosophy, but belongs now to mathematics. Mathematical philosophy, in the strict sense, cannot, perhaps, be held to include such definite scientific results as have been obtained in this region; the philosophy of mathematics will naturally be expected to deal with questions on the frontier of knowledge, as to which comparative certainty is not yet attained.More info →
The book is divided into two sections the first are considered the sources of the ideas except those of organic evolution that dominate biology and the steps by which they have been molded into a unified science. The trine of Organic Evolution on account of its importance is reserved for special consideration in the second section.More info →
A few lines will suffice to explain why we have compiled the present volume, to what wants it responds, and what its sphere of usefulness may possibly embrace.
In our teaching of plastic anatomy, especially at the École des Beaux-Arts—where, for the past nine years, we have had the very great honour of supplementing the teaching of our distinguished masterMore info →
The topics in this book are arranged for primary courses in calculus in which the formal division into differential calculus and integral calculus is deemed necessary. The book is mainly made up of matter from my Infinitesimal Calculus, Changes, however, have been made in the treatment of several topics, and some additional matter has been introduced, in particular that relating to indeterminate forms, solid geometry, and motion.
The articles on motion have been written in the belief that familiarity with the notions of velocity and acceleration, as treated by the calculus, is a great advantage to students who have to take mechanics.