Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe.More info →
Human reason, in one sphere of its cognition, is called upon to consider questions, which it cannot decline, as they are presented by its own nature, but which it cannot answer, as they transcend every faculty of the mind.
It falls into this difficulty without any fault of its own. It begins with principles, which cannot be dispensed with in the field of experience, and the truth and sufficiency of which are, at the same time, insured by experience. With these principles it rises, in obedience to the laws of its own nature, to ever higher and more remote conditions.
Einstein has succeeded in separating far more completely than hitherto the share of the observer and the share of external nature in the things we see happen. The perception of an object by an observer depends on his own situation and circumstances; for example, distance will make it appear smaller and dimmer. We make allowance for this almost unconsciously in interpreting what we see. But it now appears that the allowance made for the motion of the observer has hitherto been too crude|a fact overlooked because in practice all observers share nearly the same motion, that of the earth. Physical space and time are found to be closely bound up with this motion of the observer; and only an amorphous combination of the two is left inherent in the external world. When space and time are relegated to their proper source|the observer|the world of nature which remains appears strangely unfamiliar; but it is in reality simplified, and the underlying unity of the principal phenomena is now clearly revealed.More info →
THIS little Hand-book is intended to supply manufacturing chemists, dyers, drysalters, druggists, brokers, and all persons interested in the chemical arts, with directions for the assay and valuation of those articles of commerce which come into their hands. For this purpose the best and simplest methods have been selected, and stated, it is hoped, with the needful clearness.More info →
The book is divided into two sections the first are considered the sources of the ideas except those of organic evolution that dominate biology and the steps by which they have been molded into a unified science. The trine of Organic Evolution on account of its importance is reserved for special consideration in the second section.More info →
The electrical problems of the present day lie largely in the economical transmission of power and in the radical improvement of the means and methods of illumination. To many workers and thinkers in the domain of electrical invention, the apparatus and devices that are familiar, appear cumbrous and wasteful, and subject to severe limitations. They believe that the principles of current generation must be changed, the area of current supply be enlarged, and the appliances used by the consumer be at once cheapened and simplified. The brilliant successes of the past justify them in every expectancy of still more generous fruition.More info →
In the following pages an attempt has been made to emphasize the value of Embryology and Comparative Anatomy in elucidating the difficult and often complicated morphological problems encountered in the study of human adult anatomy.More info →
"Why did the apple fall out of the tree? Does everything fall? What makes things fall? Can anything stop things from falling? Are the sun, moon, and stars falling? Why don't they ever hit the ground?
So many questions. Newton spent many years answering these questions by thinking and doing experiments. He made up the law of gravity. According to this law everything pulled everything else to itself by a force called gravity. How strong that force is depends on how heavy the things are and how close together..
This book telling this excellent biographic story very simple, teaching and amazingly.." >
When Mary Lennox was sent to Misselthwaite Manor to live with her uncle everybody said she was the most disagreeable-looking child ever seen. It was true, too. She had a little thin face and a little thin body, thin light hair and a sour expression. Her hair was yellow, and her face was yellow because she had been born in India and had always been ill in one way or another. Her father had held a position under the English Government and had always been busy and ill himself, and her mother had been a great beauty who cared only to go to parties and amuse herself with gay people. She had not wanted a little girl at all, and when Mary was born she handed her over to the care of an Ayah, who was made to understand that if she wished to please the Mem Sahib she must keep the child out of sight as much as possible. So when she was a sickly, fretful, ugly little baby she was kept out of the way, and when she became a sickly, fretful, toddling thing she was kept out of the way also. She never remembered seeing familiarly anything but the dark faces of her Ayah and the other native servants, and as they always obeyed her and gave her her own way in everything, because the Mem Sahib would be angry if she was disturbed by her crying, by the time she was six years old she was as tyrannical and selfish a little pig as ever lived. The young English governess who came to teach her to read and write disliked her so much that she gave up her place in three months, and when other governesses came to try to fill it they always went away in a shorter time than the first one. So if Mary had not chosen to really want to know how to read books she would never have learned her letters at all.More info →
The present work is constructed on the same plan as my treatise on Plane Trigonometry, to which it is intended as a sequel; it contains all the propositions usually included under the head of Spherical Trigonometry, together with a large collection of examples for exercise. In the course of the work reference is made to preceding writers from whom assistance has been obtained; besides these writers I have consulted the treatises on Trigonometry by Lardner, Lefebure de Fourcy, and Snowball, and the treatise on Geometry published in the Library of Useful Knowledge. The examples have been chiefly selected from the University and College Examination Papers.
In the account of Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts an explanation has been given of a method of proof devised by Napier, which seems to have been overlooked by most modern writers on the subject. I have had the advantage of access to an unprinted Memoir on this point by the late R. L. Ellis of Trinity College; Mr Ellis had in fact rediscovered for himself Napier’s own method. For the use of this Memoir and for some valuable references on the subject I am indebted to the Dean of Ely.Considerable labour has been bestowed on the text in order to render it comprehensive and accurate, and the examples have all been carefully verified; and thus I venture to hope that the work will be found useful by Students and Teachers.More info →