David Hume (1711 – 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist.More info →
This little work was published as a chapter in Merriman and Woodward’s Higher Mathematics. It was written before the numerous surveys of the development of science in the past hundred years, which appeared at the close of the nineteenth century, and it therefore had more reason for being then than now, save as it can now call attention, to these later contributions. The conditions under which it was published limited it to such a small compass that it could do no more than present a list of the most prominent names in connection with a few important topics. Since it is necessary to use the same plates in this edition, simply adding a few new pages, the body of the work remains substantially as it first appeared. The book therefore makes no claim to being history, but stands simply as an outline of the prominent movements in mathematics, presenting a few of the leading names, and calling attention to some of the bibliography of the subject.More info →
It has been the author's aim to treat the subject according to the latest and most approved methods. The book is designed for the use of colleges, technical schools, normal schools, secondary schools, and for those who take up the subject without the aid of a teacher.More info →
Michael Faraday (1791 –1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.
Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.
As the work is divided into chapters, the subjects of which are complete in themselves, the pupil may commence the study of the structure, use, and laws of the several parts of which the human system is composed, by selecting such chapters as fancy or utility may dictate, without reference to their present arrangement,—as well commence with the chapter on the digestive organs as on the bones.More info →
THIS work here undertaken differs somewhat in its scope and design from systems of Logic which have hitherto been given to the world. The Aristotelian Logic is simply the method of deduction and, as such, it is complete. Subsequent works, in so far as they have been strictly logical, have closely copied the great master, and have confined them-selves to an exhibition of the deductive principles and processes.
Now, the deductive method comprehends merely the laws which govern inferences or conclusions from premises previously established.
These premises may, in their turn, be inferences from other premises, and so on, to certain extent and just so far this method is all sufficient. But it is evident that the evolution of premises and conclusions, and conclusions and premises, must have limit.
The following Essay owes its origin to a conversation with a friend, on the subject of Mr Godwin's essay on avarice and profusion, in his Enquirer. The discussion started the general question of the future improvement of society, and the Author at first sat down with an intention of merely stating his thoughts to his friend, upon paper, in a clearer manner than he thought he could do in conversation. But as the subject opened upon him, some ideas occurred, which he did not recollect to have met with before; and as he conceived that every least light, on a topic so generally interesting, might be received with candour, he determined to put his thoughts in a form for publication.More info →
This book is intended essentially as an "Introduction" and does not aim at giving an exhaustive discussion of the problems with which it deals. It seemed desirable to set forth certain results, hitherto only available to those who have mastered logical symbolism, in a form offering the minimum of difficulty to the beginner. The utmost endeavour has been made to avoid dogmatism on such questions as are still open to serious doubt, and this endeavour has to some extent dominated the choice of topics considered.
The beginnings of mathematical logic are less deffinitely known than its later portions, but are of at leastequal philosophical interest. Much of what is set forth in the following chapters is not properly to be called "philosophy" though the matters concerned were included in philosophy so long as no satisfactory science of them existed.
The nature of infinity and continuity, for example, belonged in former days to philosophy, but belongs now to mathematics. Mathematical philosophy, in the strict sense, cannot, perhaps, be held to include such definite scientific results as have been obtained in this region; the philosophy of mathematics will naturally be expected to deal with questions on the frontier of knowledge, as to which comparative certainty is not yet attained.More info →
Einstein's first paper on the restricted 'Theory of Relativity', originally published in the 'Annalen der Physik' in l905. Translated from the original German Papers by Dr. Meghnad Saha
Lord Kelvin writing-in 1893, in his prefaceto the English edition of Hertz's Researches on Electric Waves, says" many workers and many thinkers have helped to build up the nineteenth century school of plenum, one ether for light, heat, electricity, magnetism; and the German and English volumes containing Hertz's electrical papers, given to thMore info →