THE earliest record we have of the employment of an infernal machine at all resembling the torpedo of the present day, was in 1585 at the siege of Antwerp. Here by means of certain small vessels, drifted down the stream, in each of which was placed a magazine of gunpowder, to be fired either by a trigger, or a combination of levers and clockwork, an Italian engineer, Lambelli, succeeded in demolishing a bridge that the enemy had formed over the Scheldt.
(Early History of the Torpedoes)
This little work was published as a chapter in Merriman and Woodward’s Higher Mathematics. It was written before the numerous surveys of the development of science in the past hundred years, which appeared at the close of the nineteenth century, and it therefore had more reason for being then than now, save as it can now call attention, to these later contributions. The conditions under which it was published limited it to such a small compass that it could do no more than present a list of the most prominent names in connection with a few important topics. Since it is necessary to use the same plates in this edition, simply adding a few new pages, the body of the work remains substantially as it first appeared. The book therefore makes no claim to being history, but stands simply as an outline of the prominent movements in mathematics, presenting a few of the leading names, and calling attention to some of the bibliography of the subject.More info →
This volume is a sequel to the work I published, several years ago, under the title, Byzantine Constantinople: the Walls of the City, and adjoining Historical Sites. In that work the city was viewed, mainly, as the citadel of the Roman Empire in the East, and the bulwark of civilization for more than a thousand years. But the city of Constantine was not only a mighty fortress. It was, moreover, the centre of a great religious community, which elaborated dogmas, fostered forms of piety, and controlled an ecclesiastical administration that have left a profound impression upon the thought and life of mankind. New Rome was a Holy City. It was crowded with churches, hallowed, it was believed, by the remains of the apostles, prophets, saints, and martyrs of the Catholic Church; shrines at which men gathered to worship, from near and far, as before the gates of heaven.More info →
The object of this work is to present to the student of medicine and the practitioner removed from the schools, a series of dissections demonstrative of the relative anatomy of the principal regions of the human body. Whatever title may most fittingly apply to a work with this intent, whether it had better be styled surgical or medical, regional, relative, descriptive, or topographical anatomy, will matter little, provided its more salient or prominent character be manifested in its own form and feature. The work, as I have designed it, will itself show that my intent has been to base the practical upon the anatomical, and to unite these wherever a mutual dependence was apparent.More info →
ARCHITECTURE seems to me to be the most wonderful of all the arts. We may not love it as much as others, when we are young perhaps we cannot do so, because it is so great and so grand; but at any time of life one can see that in Architecture some of the most marvellous achievements of men are displayed. The principal reason for saying this is that Architecture is not an imitative art, like Painting and Sculpture.More info →
This book is intended essentially as an "Introduction" and does not aim at giving an exhaustive discussion of the problems with which it deals. It seemed desirable to set forth certain results, hitherto only available to those who have mastered logical symbolism, in a form offering the minimum of difficulty to the beginner. The utmost endeavour has been made to avoid dogmatism on such questions as are still open to serious doubt, and this endeavour has to some extent dominated the choice of topics considered. The beginnings of mathematical logic are less deffinitely known than its later portions, but are of at least
equal philosophical interest. Much of what is set forth in the following chapters is not properly to be called "philosophy" though the matters concerned were included in philosophy so long as no satisfactory science of them existed.
The nature of infinity and continuity, for example, belonged in former days to philosophy, but belongs now to mathematics. Mathematical philosophy, in the strict sense, cannot, perhaps, be held to include such definite scientific results as have been obtained in this region; the philosophy of mathematics will naturally be expected to deal with questions on the frontier of knowledge, as to which comparative certainty is not yet attained.More info →
The topics in this book are arranged for primary courses in calculus in which the formal division into differential calculus and integral calculus is deemed necessary. The book is mainly made up of matter from my Infinitesimal Calculus, Changes, however, have been made in the treatment of several topics, and some additional matter has been introduced, in particular that relating to indeterminate forms, solid geometry, and motion.
The articles on motion have been written in the belief that familiarity with the notions of velocity and acceleration, as treated by the calculus, is a great advantage to students who have to take mechanics.
“Perfect in the instant ; something went before. There must be remote matter. Nor can this remote matter suddenly Progressso from extreme unto extreme As to grow gold,and leap o'er all the means. Nature doth first beget the imperfect, then Proceeds she to the perfect.”More info →
In the greatly awakened interest in the common-school subjects during recent years, geography has received a large share. The establishment of chairs of geography in some of our greatest universities, the giving of college courses in physiography, meteorology, and commerce, and the general extension of geography courses in normal schools, academies, and high schools, may be cited as evidence of this growing appreciation of the importance of the subject.
While physiographic processes and resulting land forms occupy a large place in geographical control, the earth in its simple mathematical aspects should be better understood than it generally is, and mathematical geography deserves a larger place in the literature of the subject than the few pages generally given to it in our physical geographies and elementary astronomies.More info →