["The Elements of Drawing" was written during the winter of 1856. The First Edition was published in 1857; the Second followed in the same year, with some additions and slight alterations. The Third Edition consisted of sixth thousand, 1859; seventh thousand, 1860; and eighth thousand, 1861.
The work was partly reproduced in "Our Sketching Club," by the Rev. R. St. John Tyrwhitt, M.A., 1874; with new editions in 1875, 1882, and 1886.
Mr. Ruskin meant, during his tenure of the Slade Professorship at Oxford, to recast his teaching, and to write a systematic manual for the use of his Drawing School, under the title of "The Laws of Fésole." Of this only vol. i. was completed, 1879; second edition, 1882.
As, therefore, "The Elements of Drawing" has never been completely superseded, and as many readers of Mr. Ruskin's works have expressed a desire to possess the book in its old form, it is now reprinted as it stood in 1859.]
It is intended to have the first sixteen pages of this book simply read in the class, with such running comment and discussion as may be useful to help the beginner catch the spirit of the subject-matter, and not leave him to the mere letter of dry definitions. In like manner, the definitions at the beginning of each Book should be read and discussed in the recitation room.
There is a decided advantage in having the de_nitions for each Book in a single group so that they can be included in one survey and discussion. For a similar reason the theorems of limits are considered together. The subject of limits is exceedingly interesting in itself, and it was thought best to include in the theory of limits in the second Book every principle required for Plane and Solid Geometry.More info →
Einstein's first paper on the restricted 'Theory of Relativity', originally published in the 'Annalen der Physik' in l905. Translated from the original German Papers by Dr. Meghnad Saha
Lord Kelvin writing-in 1893, in his prefaceto the English edition of Hertz's Researches on Electric Waves, says" many workers and many thinkers have helped to build up the nineteenth century school of plenum, one ether for light, heat, electricity, magnetism; and the German and English volumes containing Hertz's electrical papers, given to thMore info →
Plato saith “tov peov akei gewmetreiv”, That "God doth alwayes worke by Geometry", that is, as the wiseman doth interprete it, Sap. XI. 21. Omnia in mensura & numero & pondere disponere. Dispose all things by measure, and number, and weight: Or, as the learned Plutarch speaketh; He adorneth and layeth out all the parts of the world according to ra-te, proportion, and similitude.More info →
Permit me in the first place to anticipate the disappointment of any student who opens this book with the idea of finding "wrinkles" on how to draw faces, trees, clouds, or what not, short cuts to excellence in drawing, or any of the tricks so popular with the drawing masters of our grandmothers and still dearly loved by a large number of people. No good can come of such methods, for there are no short cuts to excellence. But help of a very practical kind it is the aim of the following pages to give; although it may be necessary to make a greater call upon the intelligence of the student than these Victorian methods attempted.More info →
Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. There is no consensus on many central problems in philosophy of science, including whether science can reveal the truth about unobservable things and whether scientific reasoning can be justified at all. In addition to these general questions about science as a whole, philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences such as biology or physics. Some philosophers of science also use contemporary results in science to reach conclusions about philosophy.More info →
THE old saying that small causes give rise to great effects has been confirmed more than once in the history of physics. For, very frequently, inconspicuous differences between theory and experiment (which did not, however, escape the vigilant eye of the investigator) have become starting points of new and important researches.
Out of the well-known Michelson-Morley experiment, which, in spite of the application of the most powerful methods of exact optical measurement, failed to show an influence of the earth's movement on the propagation of light as was predicted by classical theory, there arose the great structure of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. In the same way the trifling difference between the measured and calculated values of black-body radiation gave rise to the Quantum Theory which, formulated by Max Planck, was destined to revolutionise in the course of time almost all departments of physics.
It was in this interesting border region, and from among these valiant Eastern folk, that Nikola Tesla was born in the year 1857, and the fact that he, today, finds himself in America and one of our foremost electricians, is striking evidence of the extraordinary attractiveness alike of electrical pursuits and of the country where electricity enjoys its widest application.More info →
IT is much easier to understand and remember a thing when a reason is given for it, than when we are merely shown how to do it without being told why it is so done; for in the latter case, instead of being assisted by reason, our real help in all study, we have to rely upon memory or our power of imitation, and to do simply as we are told without thinking about it. The consequence is that at the very first difficulty we are left to flounder about in the dark, or to remain inactive till the master comes to our assistance.
Now in this book it is proposed to enlist the reasoning faculty from the very first: to let one problem grow out of another and to be dependent on the foregoing, as in geometry, and so to explain each thing we do that there shall be no doubt in the mind as to the correctness of the proceeding. The student will thus gain the power of finding out any new problem for himself, and will therefore acquire a true knowledge of perspective.
George Adolphus Storey
In re-writing the Solid Geometry the authors have consistently carried out the distinctive features described in the preface of the Plane Geometry. Mention is here made only of certain matters which are particularly emphasized in the Solid Geometry.
Owing to the greater maturity of the pupils it has been possible to make the logical structure of the Solid Geometry more prominent than in the Plane Geometry. The axioms are stated and applied at the precise points where they are to be used. Theorems are no longer quoted in the proofs but are only referred to by paragraph numbers; while with increasing frequency the student is left to his own devices in supplying the reasons and even in filling in the logical steps of the argument. For convenience of reference the axioms and theorems of plane geometry which are used in the Solid Geometry are collected in the Introduction.More info →