Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. The book, Hesse's ninth novel (1922), was written in German, in a simple, lyrical style. It was published in the U.S. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. Hesse dedicated Siddhartha to his wife Ninon ("Meiner Frau Ninon gewidmet ") and supposedly afterwards to Romain Rolland and Wilhelm Gundert.
The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in the Sanskrit language, siddha (achieved) + artha (meaning or wealth), which together means "he who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". In fact, the Buddha's own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilvastu, Nepal. In this book, the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama".
This book contains more than one thousand facts, many of which are not generally known to the average person; but all of them are of interest to humankind, and a knowledge of many of them is essential.
The author has used the simplest English, and has avoided, as far as possible, all technical or scientific terms. He has endeavored not to fall into the common error of making his explanations harder to understand than the subjects treated.
This book is not intended for the scientist, nor does it claim to be exhaustive. In the space of a few hundred pages the writer has presented the thousand or more things which are really worth knowing, and which are usually described at unprofitable length and without that simplicity of expression so essential to clearness.
The beginning story of the communism was like this:
A ghost walks in Europe - the ghost of communism. All the forces of old Europe entered into a sacred alliance to defeat this ghost: the Pope and the Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French radicals and German police agents.
Where is the opposition party not being accused of being communist by its opponents? Where is the opposition, which has not thrown this blightful communism accusation back to its reactionary adversaries as well as to the more progressive opposition parties?More info →
The German Emperor Frederic III. in a letter written June 1453 to Pope Nicholas V., lamenting greatly the catastrophe on the Bosphonis, calls Constantinople "The capital of the Eastern Empire”, “the head of Greece, the home of arts and literature”
Indeed, from the time of Constantine the Great to the time when the dawn of Eenaissance aroused Italy to her noble task, Constantinople was the capital of Christian civilization. Its place in the history of the world has been always a most remarkable one, "Rome being the only city which can succesfully bear comparison with it".More info →
The Republic is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC concerning the definition of justice and the order and character of the just city-state and the just man. The dramatic date of the dialogue has been much debated and though it must take place some time during the Peloponnesian War, "there would be jarring anachronisms if any of the candidate specific dates between 432 and 404 were assigned".More info →
A fancy overtakes us at times to question our presumption in writing a book. Wherein are we beter than another, that we should attempt to doctor another? We look over the matter-of-fact world and find it impossible to make a show, unless we have something to exhibit: Yet here are we who can fiddle little, and fife less-who cannot turn somersets, as we could once when we were less fit to write a book -who cannot commit by the page like an actor, nor play cbess witb a third-rate,-in short who cannot prove our ability by any standard feat whatsoever, proposing to indoctrinate many who can do all these things into the deepest mysteries of life!More info →
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth, and is today a fundamental work in classical economics.More info →
Pedro Calderon de la Barca was born in Madrid, January 17, 1600, of good family. He was educated at the Jesuit College in Madrid and at the University of Salamanca; and a doubtful tradition says that he began to write plays at the age of thirteen. His literary activity was interrupted for ten years, 1625-1635, by military service in Italy and the Low Countries, and again for a year or more in Catalonia. In 1637 he became a Knight of the Order of Santiago, and in 1651 he entered the priesthood, rising to the dignity of Superior of the Brotherhood of San Pedro in Madrid. He held various offices in the court of Philip IV, who rewarded his services with pensions, and had his plays produced with great splendor. He died May 5, 1681.More info →
"An Account of the Lands & Peoples of Ottoman Empire"
MEASURED by population, Turkey is also a very small country. The whole Ottoman Empire " European, Asiatic, African, and Mediterranean, and including states that are only nominally subject to the sultans " barely reaches forty million souls “, or less than the population of the British Isle's; while the immediate Turkish possessions in Europe have a population of but six million people, or about that of the New England states of the American Union. Osmanli Turks number only a tenth of the population of European Turkey, the other nine-tenths being Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Wallachians, Hebrews, Servians, Magyars, Gypsies, Armenians, Circassians, and divers other races.More info →