Art, with its finite means, cannot hope to record the infinite variety and complexity of Nature, and so contents itself with a partial statement, addressing this to the imagination for the full and perfect meaning. This inadequation, and the artificial adjustments which it involves, are tolerated by right of what is known as artistic convention; and as each art has its own particular limitations, so each has its own particular conventions. Sculpture reproduces the forms of Nature, but discards the color without any shock to our ideas of verity; Painting gives us the color, but not the third dimension, and we are satisfied; and Architecture ispurely conventional, since it does not even aim at the imitation of natural form.More info →
In the greatly awakened interest in the common-school subjects during recent years, geography has received a large share. The establishment of chairs of geography in some of our greatest universities, the giving of college courses in physiography, meteorology, and commerce, and the general extension of geography courses in normal schools, academies, and high schools, may be cited as evidence of this growing appreciation of the importance of the subject.
While physiographic processes and resulting land forms occupy a large place in geographical control, the earth in its simple mathematical aspects should be better understood than it generally is, and mathematical geography deserves a larger place in the literature of the subject than the few pages generally given to it in our physical geographies and elementary astronomies.More info →
This volume is a sequel to the work I published, several years ago, under the title, Byzantine Constantinople: the Walls of the City, and adjoining Historical Sites. In that work the city was viewed, mainly, as the citadel of the Roman Empire in the East, and the bulwark of civilization for more than a thousand years. But the city of Constantine was not only a mighty fortress. It was, moreover, the centre of a great religious community, which elaborated dogmas, fostered forms of piety, and controlled an ecclesiastical administration that have left a profound impression upon the thought and life of mankind. New Rome was a Holy City. It was crowded with churches, hallowed, it was believed, by the remains of the apostles, prophets, saints, and martyrs of the Catholic Church; shrines at which men gathered to worship, from near and far, as before the gates of heaven.More info →
"An Account of the Lands & Peoples of Ottoman Empire"
MEASURED by population, Turkey is also a very small country. The whole Ottoman Empire " European, Asiatic, African, and Mediterranean, and including states that are only nominally subject to the sultans " barely reaches forty million souls “, or less than the population of the British Isle's; while the immediate Turkish possessions in Europe have a population of but six million people, or about that of the New England states of the American Union. Osmanli Turks number only a tenth of the population of European Turkey, the other nine-tenths being Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Wallachians, Hebrews, Servians, Magyars, Gypsies, Armenians, Circassians, and divers other races.More info →
THIS little Hand-book is intended to supply manufacturing chemists, dyers, drysalters, druggists, brokers, and all persons interested in the chemical arts, with directions for the assay and valuation of those articles of commerce which come into their hands. For this purpose the best and simplest methods have been selected, and stated, it is hoped, with the needful clearness.More info →
THIS is the oldest story in the world. It began to be told when children began to ask questions; and that was very long ago. The children said, “Where did everything come from? Who made the hills and the sea? Who made the sun and the stars?” And their fathers and mothers answered as best they could.More info →
Plato saith “tov peov akei gewmetreiv”, That "God doth alwayes worke by Geometry", that is, as the wiseman doth interprete it, Sap. XI. 21. Omnia in mensura & numero & pondere disponere. Dispose all things by measure, and number, and weight: Or, as the learned Plutarch speaketh; He adorneth and layeth out all the parts of the world according to ra-te, proportion, and similitude.More info →
The practical points brought out by this work are
( 1) The value of microscopical examination in the study of ancient specimens:
(2) The probability of a much earlier iron age in Egypt than that generally accepted:
(3) The early use of the " cire perdu " process for castings; and
(4) the comparatively late use of cold working associated with annealing for the shaping of vessels, etc.